Chapter 7. Functors and subfunctors

The present chapter describes all functors and subfunctors used in PDT.

Functors. Functors represent the semantic values of syntactic dependency relations; they express the functions of individual modifications in the sentence.

However, there are certain groups of functors that do not fit in well with the definition; these are:

Functors may be classified according to different criteria (into different subgroups). The basic subdivision is based on the part-of-speech characteristic of the expression on which the lexical unit in question depends. Hence, there are functors assigned exclusively to nodes dependent on nouns (adnominal functors) and functors that are primarily assigned to nodes dependent on verbs (adverbal functors).

Another criterion - a very important one - is the valency criterion, described in Section 2, "Valency"; the valency criterion divides functors into the argument functors and adjunct functors.

In the present chapter, the functors are classified primarily according to their semantics but the criteria mentioned above are taken into account as well.

The information regarding the functor of each node is contained in its functor attribute. See also Table 7.1, "Values of the functor attribute".

Table 7.1. Values of the functor attribute

ACMP adjunct expressing accompaniment (in the broad sense of the word) tatínek s maminkou.ACMP (=Father with Mother) See Section 6.1, "ACMP".
ACT argument - Actor Otec.ACT pracuje. (=Father is working) See Section 2.1, "ACT".
ADDR argument - Addressee Poslal dárek příteli.ADDR (=He sent a present to a friend) See Section 2.4, "ADDR".
ADVS paratactic structure root node - adversative relation Viděl, ale.ADVS neslyšel. (=He saw (it) but he didn't hear a thing) See Section 12.1.1, "ADVS".
AIM adjunct expressing purpose Cvičí, aby zhubla.AIM (=She does exercises in order to lose weight) See Section 5.1, "AIM".
APP adnominal adjunct expressing appurtenance můj.APP hrad (=my castle) See Section 10.1, "APP".
APPS the root node of an appositional structure substantivum, neboli.APPS podstatné jméno (=substantive, or noun) See Section 12.2, "Functor for apposition (APPS)".
ATT atomic expression expressing the speaker's attitude Je to samozřejmě.ATT pravda. (=Of course, it is true) See Section 7.1, "ATT".
AUTH adnominal adjunct referring to the author (of sth) Nezvalovy.AUTH verše (=Nezval's poems) See Section 10.2, "AUTH".
BEN adjunct expressing that sth is happening for the benefit (or disadvantage) of sb/sth Pracuje pro firmu.BEN (=He is working for the company) See Section 9.1, "BEN".
CAUS adjunct expressing the cause (of sth) Z důvodu nemoci.CAUS zavřeno. (=It is closed because of illness) See Section 5.2, "CAUS".
CNCS adjunct expressing concession Navzdory studijním úspěchům.CNCS se v praxi neuplatnil. (=Despite he was successful as a student, he wasn't equally successful in practice) See Section 5.3, "CNCS".
CM conjunction modifier otec a také.CM syn (=lit. Father and as_well_as his son) See Section 12.4, "Functor for conjunction modifiers (CM)".
COMPL adjunct - predicative complement Vrátila se unavená.COMPL (=She returned tired) See Section 11, "Functor for the predicative complement (COMPL)".
COND adjunct expressing a condition (for sth else to happen) Když spí.COND , nezlobí. (=If he sleeps, he is good) See Section 5.4, "COND".
CONFR paratactic structure root node - confrontation Pavel se zlepšuje, kdežto.CONFR Jan dostává čtyřky. (=Pavel is getting better while Jan is getting fours/bad marks) See Section 12.1.2, "CONFR".
CONJ paratactic structure root node - simple coordination/conjunction Pavel a.CONJ Jan (=Pavel and Jan) See Section 12.1.3, "CONJ".
CONTRA paratactic structure root node - two entities are in conflict (in a match, fight etc.) otec versus.CONTRA syn (=Father vs. son) See Section 12.1.4, "CONTRA".
CONTRD adjunct expressing confrontation Zatímco mzdy klesají.CONTRD , ceny se zvyšují. (=While wages are going down, prices are going up) See Section 9.2, "CONTRD".
CPHR the nominal part of a complex predicate mít plán.CPHR (=to have a plan) See Section 8.1, "CPHR".
CPR adjunct expressing comparison víc než tisíc.CPR korun (=more than one thousand crowns) See Section 6.2, "CPR".
CRIT adjunct expressing a criterion/measure/standard Seřaď slova podle abecedy.CRIT (=Put the words in the alphabetical order, lit. organize words according to alphabet) See Section 6.3, "CRIT".
CSQ paratactic structure root node - consequential relation Pracoval nezodpovědně, a.CSQ proto dostal výpověď. (=He wasn't responsible (in his work), therefore, he was fired) See Section 12.1.5, "CSQ".
DENOM effective root node of an independent nominal clause (which is not parenthetical) Základní škola.DENOM (=Primary school) See Section 1.2, "DENOM".
DIFF adjunct expressing a difference (between two entities, states etc.) Je vyšší o dva centimetry.DIFF (=He is two centimeters taller) See Section 6.4, "DIFF".
DIR1 directional adjunct - answering the question "odkud (=where from?)" Přijel z Prahy.DIR1 (=He came from Praha) See Section 4.1, "DIR1".
DIR2 directional adjunct - answering the question "kudy (=which way?)" Jdou lesem.DIR2 (=They are walking through the woods) See Section 4.2, "DIR2".
DIR3 directional adjunct - answering the question "kam (=where to?)" Přišel domů.DIR3 (=He came home) See Section 4.3, "DIR3".
DISJ paratactic structure root node - disjunctive relation Pojedu já, nebo.DISJ ty. (=Either I will go, or you) See Section 12.1.6, "DISJ".
DPHR the dependent part of an idiomatic expression křížem krážem.DPHR (=crisscross) See Section 8.2, "DPHR".
EFF argument - Effect Jmenovali ho předsedou.EFF (=They appointed him as a chairman) See Section 2.3, "EFF".
EXT adjunct expressing extent V nádobě je přesně.EXT litr vody. (=The pot contains exactly one liter of water) See Section 6.5, "EXT".
FPHR part of a foreign-language expression cash.FPHR flow.FPHR See Section 8.3, "FPHR".
GRAD paratactic structure root node - gradation Běžel, ba.GRAD utíkal. (=He not only ran, he ran helter-skelter) See Section 12.1.7, "GRAD".
HER adjunct expressing inheritance šátek po matce.HER (=lit. scarf after Mother, i.e. inherited) See Section 9.3, "HER".
ID the nominative of identity and explicative genitive hrad Karlštejn.ID; trest smrti.ID (= the castle Karlštejn, death penalty; lit. penalty death.GEN) See Section 10.3, "ID".
INTF atomic expression referring to the "false (expletive) subject" Ono.INTF prší. (=It is raining) See Section 7.2, "INTF".
INTT adjunct expressing intention Šel nakoupit.INTT (=He went shopping) See Section 5.5, "INTT".
LOC locative adjunct - answering the question "kde (=where?)" Pracuje v Praze.LOC (=She works in Praha) See Section 4.4, "LOC".
MANN adjunct expressing the manner (of doing sth) Mluví hlasitě.MANN (=He is talking loud) See Section 6.6, "MANN".
MAT adnominal argument referring to the content of a container sklenice vody.MAT (=a glass of water) See Section 10.4, "MAT".
MEANS adjunct expressing a means (of doing sth) Píše perem.MEANS (=She is writing with a pen) See Section 6.7, "MEANS".
MOD atomic expression with a modal meaning Pracuje asi.MOD na půl úvazku. (=She works probably part-time) See Section 7.3, "MOD".
OPER paratactic structure root node referring to a mathematical operation or interval pět .OPER deset hodin (=from five to ten hours) See Section 12.3, "Functor for mathematical operations and intervals (OPER)".
ORIG argument - Origo Vyrábí nábytek ze dřeva.ORIG (=He makes furniture out of wood) See Section 2.5, "ORIG".
PAR effective root node of a parenthetic (verbal or nominal) clause Přijedu 13. prosince (pátek.PAR ). (=I am coming on December 13th (Friday)) See Section 1.5, "PAR".
PARTL effective root node of an independent interjectional clause Hurá.PARTL , vyhráli jsme! (=Hurray, we won!) See Section 1.4, "PARTL".
PAT argument - Patient Vaří oběd.PAT (=He is cooking lunch) See Section 2.2, "PAT".
PREC atomic expression referring to the preceding context A.PREC pak odešel. (=And then he left) See Section 7.4, "PREC".
PRED effective root node of an independent verbal clause (which is not parenthetical) Pavel dal.PRED kytku Martině. (=Pavel gave a flower to Martina) See Section 1.1, "PRED".
REAS paratactic structure root node - causal relation Dostal výpověď, neboť.REAS pracoval nezodpovědně. (=He was fired, since he wasn't responsible) See Section 12.1.8, "REAS".
REG adjunct expressing with regard to what sth is asserted Vzhledem k počasí.REG nelze nic plánovat. (=Considering the weather, it's not possible to plan anything) See Section 6.8, "REG".
RESL adjunct expressing the result/effect of something Mluví tak potichu, že mu nerozumíme.RESL (=He is speaking so softly that we can't understand what he's saying) See Section 6.9, "RESL".
RESTR adjunct expressing an exception / restriction Kromě tebe.RESTR tam byli všichni. (=Except for you, everybody was there) See Section 6.10, "RESTR".
RHEM atomic expression - rhematizer Jen.RHEM Karel odešel. (=Only Karel left) See Section 7.5, "RHEM".
RSTR adnominal adjunct modifying its governing noun velký.RSTR dům (=a big house) See Section 10, "Specific adnominal functors".
SUBS adjunct expressing that sb/sth substitutes for sb/sth else Za otce.SUBS jednal strýc. (Instead of Father, our uncle took action) See Section 9.4, "SUBS".
TFHL temporal adjunct - answering the question "na jak dlouho? (=for how long?)" Přijel na měsíc.TFHL (=He came for a month) See Section 3.2, "TFHL".
TFRWH temporal adjunct - answering the question "ze kdy? (=from when?)" Přeložil jednání ze soboty.TFRWH na dnešek. (=He shifted the negotiations from Saturday to today) See Section 3.3, "TFRWH".
THL temporal adjunct - answering the questions "jak dlouho? (=how long?)" and "za jak dlouho? (=after how long?)" Stihnul to za týden.THL (=He managed to do it in a week) See Section 3.4, "THL".
THO temporal adjunct - answering the questions "jak často? (=how often?)" and "kolikrát? (=how many times?)" Pracuju na tom každý den.THO (=I work on that every day) See Section 3.5, "THO".
TOWH temporal adjunct - answering the question "na kdy? (=to when?)" Přeložil jednání ze soboty na dnešek.TOWH (=He moved the negotiations from Saturday to today) See Section 3.6, "TOWH".
TPAR temporal adjunct - answering the questions "současně s čím? (=in parallel/simultaneously with what?)" and "během jaké doby? (=during what time?)" Během naší dovolené.TWHEN ani jednou nepršelo. (=During our holiday it didn't rain once) See Section 3.7, "TPAR".
TSIN temporal adjunct - answering the question "od kdy? (=since when?)" Budu pracovat od zítra.TSIN (=I will be working from tomorrow) See Section 3.8, "TSIN".
TTILL temporal adjunct - answering the question "do kdy? (=until when?)" Udělám to do pátku.TTILL (=I will do it before Friday) See Section 3.9, "TTILL".
TWHEN temporal adjunct - answering the question "kdy? (=when?)" Přijdu zítra.TWHEN (=I'll come tomorrow) See Section 3.1, "TWHEN".
VOCAT effective root node of an independent vocative clause Hanko.VOCAT , podej mi to. (=Hanka, give it to me) See Section 1.3, "VOCAT".

Subfunctors. With some functors, more detailed specification of their relation to their governing node is needed. Such information is carried by subfunctors.

The subfunctors are described in Section 13, "Further specification of a functor".

!!! There was no subsequent check regarding the appropriate assignment of the adjunct functors (and most of the adnominal argument functors). In the future, it will be necessary to carry out such a check - there may be identical modifications bearing different functors in the data. It may be also necessary to define individual functors with more precision.