Definition of the functor CONTRD

The functor CONTRD (contradiction) is a functor for free modifications expressing a confrontational background for the event (or state) expressed by the governing verb.

The confrontation is usually carried out in such a manner, that in the background of one fact (expressed by a clause), a different or contradicting fact (also expressed by a clause) comes into the foreground as with an embossed relief. Therefore, a free modification with the functor CONTRD is usually represented by a verbal clause. Typically, the syntactic structure of the governing clause and the dependent clause is parellel.

Forms. A modification with the functor CONTRD is formally expressed by a dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction zatímco:

Figure 7.51. The CONTRD functor

The CONTRD functor

Zatímco loni prý v premiéře proti Samprasovi hrál chaoticky, nyní už měl plán. (=lit. While last_year they_say in premiere against Sampras (he) played chaotically, now already (he) had plan.)

9.2.1. Borderline cases with the functor CONTRD

Border with the functor TPAR. Apart from introducing dependent clauses with the CONTRD meaning, the subordinating conjunction zatímco (=while) can also introduce dependent clauses with the meaning of the temporal functor TPAR (see Section 3.7, "TPAR"). The choice between these two functors can sometimes be problematic, as two parallel events (TPAR) can, at the same time, sharply contradict each other (CONTRD). The meaning of confrontation is present in those cases when the dependent clause, introduced by the conjunction zatímco, does not refer to an event simultaneous with that denoted by the governing clause. In those cases where the two events are simultaneous (whether contradictory or not), the effective root node of the dependent clause is assigned the functor TPAR. Compare:

  • Zatímco Sparta v druhé třetině vedla.CONTRD , nakonec odcházela se svěšenou hlavou. (=While Sparta led the match in the second third, finally they were leaving with their heads bowed.)

  • Zatímco já jsem celý den tvrdě pracovala.TPAR , ty jsi jen lenošila. (=While I have been working the whole day, you only lazed about.)

For more on dependent clauses introduced by the conjunction zatímco (while) see also Section, "Constructions with the connective "zatímco"".

Border with the functor CONFR. The functor CONTRD is semantically very close to a functor of coordination, namely CONFR (see Section 12.1.2, "CONFR"). However, the confrontation meaning with the CONTRD functor is expressed hypotactically, while the CONFR functor is reserved for the cases of confrontation expressed paratactically. Compare:

  • Zatímco loni prý v premiéře proti Samprasovi hrál.CONTRD chaoticky, nyní už měl plán. (=While he was told to play chaotically last year in his premiere against Sampras, now he had a plan.)

  • Loni prý v premiéře proti Samprasovi hrál chaoticky, kdežto.CONFR nyní už měl plán. (=He was told to play chaotically last year in his premiere against Sampras, whilst now he had a plan.)

For more on the equivalence between functors for coordination and functors for dependent modifications see also Section 6.2, "Coordination and apposition".

Borders with other functors (especially with the COND functor). A similar meaning of confrontation (or background for something else), expressed hypotactically, can be found in dependent clauses introduced by the subordinating conjunctions jestliže (=if), aby (=so that), když (=when). However, the meaning of confrontation or background in these clauses is rather covered by the meaning of the subordinationg conjunction (i.e. condition, purpose or a temporal meaning). Therefore we prefer to use the functors for these meanings. Compare:

  • Jestliže dnes za surové dříví z jednoho hektaru smrkového lesa může utržit.COND asi 350 tisíc korun, zhruba 140 tisíc korun z toho musí vynaložit na založení dalšího porostu. (=If he can sell the raw wood from one acre of pine forrest for 350 thousand crowns, he has to spend approximately 140 thousands crowns on planting the new vegetation.)

See Section 5.4.2, "False dependent conjunctional clauses" for details.