3.1. TWHEN

Definiton of the TWHEN functor

The TWHEN functor (temporal : when) is a functor for a free modification that expresses time answering the question "when?".

A modification with functor TWHEN localizes the event or state expressed by a governing word in a particular moment or interval through direct time specification (v pět hodin (=lit. at five o'clock), letos (=this year)), or through specification of the temporal relation to another event (před odjezdem (=lit. before departure), po snídani (=lit. after breakfast)).

Subfunctors. The TWHEN functor is further specified by subfunctors. See Section 13.1.9, "Subfunctors with the TWHEN functor".

Forms. The basic forms of modifications with the TWHEN functor are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns denoting events (nouns ending with -ní and ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), TWHEN modifications can also be expressed by agreeing forms of adjectives.


budoucí.TWHEN zvyšování výroby (=lit. future increase in production)

další.TWHEN zvyšování sazeb (=lit. another increase in rates)

dnešní.TWHEN jednání (=lit. today's negotiation)

jarní.TWHEN vykročení (=lit. spring start)

letošní.TWHEN sklízení (=lit. this year's harvesting

minulé.TWHEN jednání (=lit. last negotiation)

okamžité.TWHEN podání (=lit. immediate serve)

pondělní.TWHEN prohlášení Daniela Kroupy (=lit. Monday declaration (of) Daniel Kroupa)

poslední.TWHEN snížení stavu (=lit. last decrease (in) number_(of)_workers)

první.TWHEN zasedání vlády (=lit. (the) first session (of) (the) government)

předchozí.TWHEN sčítání obyvatelstva (=lit. (the) previous census -)

původní.TWHEN rozhodnutí vlády (=lit. (the) original decision (of) (the) government)

včerejší.TWHEN účtování (=lit. yesterday's account)

víkendové.TWHEN nicnedělání (=lit. weekend lounging)

Figure 7.10. The TWHEN functor

The TWHEN functor

Po jednání s premiérem odjel domů. (=lit. After (the) negotiation with (the) prime_minister (he) went home.)

3.1.1. Borderline cases with the TWHEN functor

Borders between individual temporal functors. Modifications with the TWHEN functor represent temporal modifications proper. They localize the event or state that is expressed by the governing word on a time line with respect to a given moment or time interval. The validity of an event with respect to a moment or to an interval on the time line can also be expressed by temporal modifications with the functors TTILL and TSIN, TPAR, TFRWH and TOWH (to which the TWHEN functor is semantically closely related).

The functors TTILL (see Section 3.9, "TTILL") and TSIN (see Section 3.8, "TSIN") , however, express the moment or time interval in which the event either begins (TSIN), or ends (TTILL), hence, they do not say "when?" but rather "since when?", or "till when?". The TPAR functor (see Section 3.7, "TPAR") localizes the governing event with respect to another event, or it refers to the time interval the governing event is synchronized with, or within the frame of which it is effective. Also the TOWH (see Section 3.6, "TOWH") and TFRWH functors (see Section 3.3, "TFRWH") have a specific meaning of situating the event on the time line; however, these functors, unlike the TWHEN functor, do not situate the event that is expressed by the governing word and therefore these temporal adverbials can occur in one construction together with those bearing the TWHEN functor (which situates the governing event on the time line), e.g.:

Včera.TWHEN přeložil výuku z pátku.TFRWH na pondělí.TOWH . (=lit. Yesterday (he) postponed class from Friday to Monday.)

Other temporal functors do not directly situate the event on the time line but they rather express various temporal - degree meanings linked to the event. However, this group of functors is not entirely different from the TWHEN functor, particularly in the cases in which the temporal - degree meanings ("how long?", "after how long?", "how many times?" and "how often?") superimpose upon the basic meaning "when?". If the temporal - degree meaning follows directly from the temporal modification, this modification is assigned a temporal functor which expresses that particular meaning; however, if the temporal - degree meaning follows from some other aspects (from the context, verbal aspect etc.) the modification is assigned the TWHEN functor.

See also Section 3.5, "THO", Section 3.4, "THL" and Section 3.2, "TFHL".

Various temporal modifications can be identical in their form and especially in the cases in which they are expressed with the help of a primary preposition, one expression can express more temporal meanings. The choice of the functor in a particular construction is usually determined by the context. Cf.:

  • Přijede za dvě hodiny.TWHEN (=lit.(He) will_come in two hours.)

  • Napsal to za dvě hodiny.THL (=lit.(He) wrote it in two hours.)

  • Za dvě hodiny.TPAR nic neudělal. (=lit. In two hours (he) nothing did.)

Borders with other functors. The TWHEN functor can border also on functors of other than temporal modifications. Identical formal means (particularly identical prepositions) and the use of an abstract expression also leads to blurred differentiation between temporal and other functors, esp. locative functors. Cf.:

  • Sdělím ti to až na schůzi (=lit. (I) will_tell you it only at (the) meeting.).

    The modification na schůzi (=lit. at (the) meeting) can have a temporal meaning (providing an answer to the question "when?" - TWHEN), but it can also express a locative meaning (providing the information on the place where the communication takes place - the LOC functor).

  • Při práci si nezpívá.(=lit. By work (he) (to) himself does_not_sing.)

    The modification při práci (=lit. by work) can express either a condition (if he works, he does not sing to himself), or, again, simply a temporal meaning, answering the question "when?".

There are no firm rules for the unambiguous assignment of the functors in these cases; the functor is chosen on the basis of the available context and the annotator's consideration.