3.8. TSIN

Definition of the TSIN functor

The TSIN functor (temporal: since when) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question "since when?".

A modification with the TSIN functor expresses the beginning of the event expressed by the governing word, either by direct specification of the moment (od pěti hodin (=lit. since five o'clock), odedneška (=since today)), or by specifying the temporal relation to another event (od příjezdu (=lit. since (the) arrival), od snídaně (=lit. since breakfast)).

Forms. The basic forms of TSIN modifications are:

Figure 7.17. The TSIN functor

The TSIN functor

Od soboty nepršelo. (=lit. Since Saturday (it) has_not_rained.)

Figure 7.18. The TSIN functor

The TSIN functor

Co odešli, je tu klid. (=lit. Since (they) left (it) has_been here calm.)

3.8.1. Borderline cases with the TSIN functor

Border with the TFRWH functor. The TSIN functor is close to the temporal modifications the meaning of which is "from when?" (TFRWH; see Section 3.3, "TFRWH"). However, the distinction between these two functors in a particular context is usually unambiguous. A modification with the TSIN functor always expresses the beginning (of the duration) of the governing event., i.e. the beginning of an interval; the TFRWH functor, on the other hand, has nothing to do with duration or intervals, it only localizes another modification in a moment in the past. Cf.:

  • Od minulého roku.TSIN už nepracuji. (=lit. Since last year (I) have_not_worked.)

    Pracuje odvčera.TSIN (= lit.(He) has_been_working since_yesterday.)

  • vstupenka z pondělí.TFRWH (=lit. (a) ticket from Monday)

    Zápisy jsou odvčera.TFRWH (=lit. Registration has_been_running since_yesterday.)

    Z minulého roku.TFRWH si nic nepamatuji (=lit. From (the) last year (I) - anything cannot_remember.)

    nevykonaná práce od minulého pondělí.TFRWH (=lit. that_has_not_been_done work since last Monday)

Borders with other functors. Due to the identity in form, the TSIN functor can also border on functors for other than temporal modifications. However, in a particular context the choice of the functor is usually unambiguous. Cf.:

  • Od snídaně mě bolí zuby. (=Since breakfast I have had a toothache.)

    The modification od snídaně (=since breakfast) can express the moment when the toothache started (then it is assigned the TSIN functor), in a different context, however, (e.g. I had something sweet for breakfast and it makes my teeth ache) the modification od snídaně (=since breakfast) can be assigned the CAUS functor, too.