4.1. DIR1

Definition of the DIR1 functor

The DIR1 functor (directional: from) is a functor of a free modification that expresses specification of place (direction) answering the question "where from?", i.e. it refers to the starting point (of the event denoted by the governing word).

A modification with the DIR1 functor can also have the meaning of a selection from a group of objects; e.g.:

jeden z chlapců.DIR1 (=lit. one of (the) boys)

nejlepší z lidí.DIR1 (=lit. (the) best of men)

Subfunctors. The DIR1 functor is further specified by subfunctors. See Section 13.1.4, "Subfunctors with the DIR1 functor".

Valency. DIR1 modifications are obligatory for many verbs, esp. for verbs of motion with the prefix od-, vy- and s- (e.g. odplout (=to_sail_away), odpochodovat (=to_march_away), odstranit (=to_remove), vylovit (=to_fish_out), vyváznout (=to_express), seskočit (=to_jump_down), sundat (=to_take_down)), for verbs of motion with the prefix pře-, DIR1 modifications are obligatory together with DIR3 modifications (přemístit (=to_replace), přesadit (=to_reposition), přesídlit (=to_resettle)).

Forms. The basic forms of DIR1 modifications are:

Figure 7.20. The DIR1 functor

The DIR1 functor

Odkud jste přijeli? (=lit. Where_from did_(you) come?)

4.1.1. Borderline cases with the DIR1 functor

Borders with other locative and directinal functors. DIR1 modifications borders on other locative modifications (due to their formal similarities). For more see Section 4.4, "LOC".

Borders with other functors. DIR1 modifications can border also on other than locative modifications. However, in a particular context the choice of the functor is usually unambiguous. Cf.:

  • Strach z Prahy Pavla ještě neopustil. (=lit. (The) fear of Prague Paul yet has_not_left.)

    The modification z Prahy (=of Prague) can express the location where Paul's fear appeared for the first time (then it is assigned the DIR1 functor), or, in a different context (e.g. Paul is going to study in Prague and he is afraid of it), the modification z Prahy (=of Prague) can carry the CAUS meaning.