3.9. TTILL

Definition of the TTILL functor

The TTILL functor (temporal: till) is a functor for a (free) temporal modification answering the question "till when?".

A modification with the TTILL functor expresses the end of the event (expressed by the governing word) either by direct specification of the moment (do pěti hodin (=lit. till five o'clock), dodnes (=till today)), or by specifying the temporal relation to another event (do odjezdu (=till the departure), do snídaně (=till breakfast)).

Forms. The basic forms of TTILL modifications are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns denoting events (nouns ending with -ní and ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), THL modifications can also be expressed by agreeing forms of adjectives (however, this is rather rare).


dosavadní.TTILL fungování (=lit. (the) existing operation)

Figure 7.19. The TTILL functor

The TTILL functor

Udělej to, než se vrátím. (=lit. Do it before (I) get_back.)

3.9.1. Borderline cases with the TTILL functor

Border with the THL functor. The TTILL functor is close esp. to temporal modifications with the meaning "how long?" (THL; see Section 3.4, "THL"). See Section 3.4.1, "Borderline cases with the THL functor".

Dependent clause with conjunction "dokud (=till)". A dependent temporal clause introduced by the connective dokud (=till) can express both the meaning TTILL and THL. See also Section 3.4.1, "Borderline cases with the THL functor".

Border with the TWHEN functor in the constructions with conjunction "než (=before)". A dependent temporal clause with the conjuction než (=before) borders on temporal clauses that have the meaning of the TWHEN functor (see Section 3.1, "TWHEN"). Cf.:

  • Než se naobědval.TWHEN , umyl si ruce. (=lit. Before (he) - had_lunch, (he) washed his hands.)

  • Udělej to, než se vrátím.TTILL (=lit. Do it before (I) get_back.)