5.3. CNCS

Definition of the CNCS functor

The CNCS functor (concession) is assigned to free modifications expressing a cause (a concession) that is true but does not bring about the supposed consequential event or state, and at the same time an unexpected event expressed by the governig word takes place.

Modifications with the CNCS functor form a group of modifications with a distinct and unified meaning. There is a range of synonymous means for expressing concession.

Forms. CNCS modifications are primarily expressed by dependent clauses. In case of semantic condensation, a modification with the CNCS functor can also be expressed by a prepositional phrase or adverbial expression.

The basic forms of CNCS modifications are:

Figure 7.26. The CNCS functor

The CNCS functor

Ač je zlý, tento čin nespáchal. (=lit. Although (he) is bad this crime (he) did_not_commit.)

5.3.1. Borderline cases with CNCS the functor

Border with the ADVS functor. Concession is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the adversative relation (ADVS; see Section 12.1.1, "ADVS") because both the relations are based on contradiction of two contents. In PDT, the border between the functors CNCS and ADVS is given by the used form. Paratactically connected clauses are re[resented with the ADVS functor; with a hypotactically connected clause the effective root node is assigned the CNCS functor. However, it is also possible to see the two forms as semantically different: in the case of parataxis (ADVS), two incongruous contents occur next to each other and their cooccurence is not a usual situation. In the case of hypotaxis (CNCS), the contradiction follows from not fulfilling the causality. Cf.:

  • Přestože pršelo.CNCS, šli na procházku. (=lit. Although (it) was_raining (they) went for (a) walk.)

  • Pršelo, ale.ADVS přesto šli na procházku. (=lit. (It) was_raining - yet (they) went for (a) walk.)

See also Section 6.2, "Coordination and apposition".

Border with the ACMP functor. The CNCS functor can border on a the ACMP functor (see Section 6.1, "ACMP"). For details see Section 6.1.1, "Borderline cases with the ACMP functor".