6.1. ACMP

Definition of the ACMP functor

The ACMP functor (accompaniment) is a functor for such an adjunct which expresses manner by specifying a circumstance (an object, person, event) that accompanies (or fails to accompany) the event or entity modified by the adjunct.

Subfunctors. The ACMP functor is further specified by subfunctors. See also Section 13.1.1, "Subfunctors with the ACMP functor".

Modifying nouns and verbs. Adjuncts with the ACMP functor modify both nouns and verbs. If the adjunct with the ACMP functor modifies a noun, the accompaniment meaning is clearer; if it modifies a verb, this meaning is weaker and the adjunct expresses rather a circumstance accompanying the main event.

Modifying nouns. Modifications with the ACMP functor modify nouns especially in the following cases:

Modifying verbs. Modifications with the ACMP functor modify verbs in the following cases:

NB! If the ACMP modification is in a distance relation with a noun, it also modifies the event itself (e.g. Tatínek šel do divadla s maminkou (=lit. Dad went to theater with Mum)). In such cases, the ACMP adjunct depends on the verb (and it is a case of vague circumstance). See also Section 11.1.1, "Ambiguous relations with adjuncts expressed by prepositional phrases".

Forms. The basic forms of the ACMP modification are:

Figure 7.29. The ACMP functor

The ACMP functor

Tatínek s maminkou šli do divadla. (=lit. Dad with Mum went to theater)

Figure 7.30. The ACMP functor

The ACMP functor

Odešel s úsměvem na tváři. (=lit. (He) left with smile on face)

Figure 7.31. The ACMP functor

The ACMP functor

Koupili dvě sady lega s tím, že dají každému synovi jednu. (=lit. (They) bought two sets (of) lego with that, that (they) give each son one)

!!! In the present version of PDT, the ACMP functor has in fact two meanings:

The original meaning of the ACMP functor is the first meaning mentioned. The second meaning started being analyzed using the ACMP functor only later, during the annotation. It has turned out, however, that it is not quite adequate to unite the two meanings. It will be, therefore, necessary to consider introducing a new functor for the second meaning.

6.1.1. Borderline cases with the ACMP functor

Border with the MANN functor. The ACMP is very close to the most general functor for expressing manner: the MANN functor (see Section 6.6, "MANN"). See also Section 6.6.1, "Borderline cases with the MANN functor".

Borders with arguments. ACMP modifications are adjuncts and they are obligatory only very rarely. However, the ACMP modifications sometimes border on the valency positions like the Addressee and Patient; the latter are to be distinguished on the basis of the criteria for distinguishing arguments and adjuncts (see Section 2.1.1, "Criteria for distinguishing between inner participants (arguments) and free modifications (adjuncts)") and the lexical semantics of the modification. Cf.:

  • teroristé se sešli s granáty.ACMP u opasku (=the terrorists met with grenades by their belts)

  • teroristé se sešli s veliteli.PAT (=the terrorists met with the leaders)

Borders with the functors for implicational relations. With modifications expressed by the prepositional phrase s+7, the ACMP functor can get close to the functors for implicational relations (see Section 5, "Functors for implicational (causal) relations"). The semantics of the modifications with the ACMP functor is by definition very broad; in one of its meanings ACMP refers to accompanying circumstances of the event. In certain cases, the meaning of an accompanying circumstance can be very close to concession (CNCS), condition (COND) or aim (AIM). The prepositional phrase s+7 never expresses concession, condition or aim unambiguously; on the contrary, it primarily indicates the (vague) accompanying circumstance: therefore, such prepositional modifications get the ACMP functor. Cf.:

  • Nastoupil na místo s cílem.ACMP získat praxi v oboru. (=He started the new job with the aim to get practical experience in the field)

    It is not quite clear whether the modification s cílem získat praxi v oboru expresses aim; therefore, the ACMP functor is assigned.

  • Dokážeme to i se špatnou technikou.ACMP (=We can do it even with bad equipment)

    It is not quite clear whether the modification se špatnou technikou expresses concession; therefore, the ACMP functor is assigned.

  • S tvými schopnostmi.ACMP bych dokázal více (=I would be able to do more with your abilities).

    It is not quite clear whether the modification s tvými schopnostmi expresses condition; therefore, the ACMP functor is assigned.

Similarly, the ACMP functor is assigned to (the effective root nodes of) dependent clauses introduced by s tím, že and bez toho, aby, which also do not express the semantic relation to the matrix clause (e.g. concession, aim, condition) unambiguously.

Border with the TPAR functor. The ACMP functor can also border on temporal functors, especially TPAR (see Section 3.7, "TPAR"). See Section 3.7.1, "Borderline cases with the TPAR functor".

Border with the ATT functor. The ACMP functor can also border on the ATT functor (see Section 7.1, "ATT"). See Section 7.1.1, "Borderline cases with the ATT functor".