Unlike other modifications, the modifications with the
ATT functor characterize the communication situation, they signal communication functions of the utterance and they introduce pragmatic meanings into the utterance. They express speaker's attitudes like amazement, surprise, satisfaction, concern, indifference, regret etc.
NB! The functor
ATT is also assigned to modifications that further specify the modal meanings of modal predicates. For more details see also Section 188.8.131.52, "Closer specification of modal meanings".
NB! For details on the syntactic nature of the
ATT modifications see Section 11.1.3, "The semantic scope of modifications with the functors
Forms. Modifications with the
ATT functor typically have a fixed lexical content, particularly in prepositional phrases. The basic forms of
ATT modifications are:
adverbial and particle expressions.
Je to bohudíky.
ATT za námi (=lit. Is it thank_God over -.) Fig. 7.42
Díla s tématem synonymie jsou dnes již bohužel.
ATT nedostupná. (=lit. Works on - synonymy are today any_more unfortunately not_available.)
Bude-li vláda vystřídána, je to samozřejmě.
ATT pro republiku významná událost. (=lit. Are-if (the) government replaced is it of_course for (the) republic (an) important event.)
Vypovědět ji prostě.
ATT nelze. (=lit. To_expel her simply is_impossible.)
To je fakticky.
ATT zlé. (=lit. That is really bad.)
Je to náhodou.
ATT hezké. (=lit. Is it actually nice.)
ATT , s čím přijedou Číňanky. (=lit. (I) do_not_know nevertheless with what will_come_up (the) Chinese.)
ATT , pak přišla první konkrétní čísla. (=lit. Truly, then came fist concrete figures.)
ATT se opovaž. (=lit. Just you dare.)
Čiší z nich konec.
ATT konců i neschopnost vlády. (=lit. (They) radiate -- after all also (the) incapability (of) (the) government.)
ATT peníze, o ty by nebylo. (=lit. Well, money, -they wouldn't matter.)
NB! The cases of so-called lexicalized parenthesis are also represented as
ATT modifications (see Section 7.2, "Lexicalized parenthesis"). Examples:
Dopadne to, doufejme.
ATT dobře. (=lit. Will_work_out it hopefully well.)
To je, myslím.
ATT , náš pes. (=lit. That is I think our dog.)
ATT , to je složité. (=lit. (You) know it is complicated.)
The most common forms:
|bez+2||Taková je bez nadsázky Honda Prelude 3.2. (=lit. Like_that is without (any) exaggeration what (the) new Honda Prelude 3.2.); bez obalu; (=lit. without cover; directly)|
|k+3||Zákazník ke své škodě málokdy přemýšlí o vlastnostech nabízeného tovaru.(=lit. (A)customer to his/her detriment hardly_ever thinks about (the) properties (of) (an) offered product.); k plné spokojenosti (=lit. to his/her satisfaction)|
|po+6||po pravdě (=truly)|
|s+7||To vše a mnohé jiné nás škola s radostí naučí. (=lit. All that and much more us school with joy will_teach.)|
|v+6||Ve skutečnosti nezbyl téměř kámen na kameni. (=lit. - Actually (there) was_left hardly (a) stone standing.); Oba systémy byly v podstatě totožné. (=lit. Both systems were - actually identical.)|
noun in a non-prepositional case form.
The most common forms:
|instrumental||To je svým způsobem také podivuhodné (=lit. This is in_a_way also remarkable) ; Přišla v době, kdy se shodou okolností Barák loučil. (=lit. she came -- when by coincidence Barák was_saying_goodbye.)|
subordinating conjunction in the function of a particle .
ATT ale vy to nevidíte dobře. (=lit. - But you it cannot_see right.)
ATT máme kapacitu stadionu 5000 míst (=lit. But is (the) capacity (of) (the) stadium 5000 seats.)
ATT , vy si ze mě děláte legraci? (=lit. Don't_you, you - of me are_making fun?)
Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns referring to events (nouns ending with -ní and tí; see Section 184.108.40.206, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events") the modifications with the
ATT functor can also be expressed by an agreeing form of an adjective (only marginally).
ATT poškozování zájmů státu (=lit. (the) alleged harm (of) interests (of) (the) state)
ATT podnikání (=lit. (the) so-called business)
Border with the
ATT modifications can be formally close to other modifications. There is a frequent homonymy between the functors
MANN. In such cases it is typical that the modification with the
ATT functor (meaning: "it was simple, fair etc. that he did it") occurs clause-initially while the modification with the
MANN functor (meaning: "it was simple, fair etc. in what way he did it ") occurs after the verb. Compare:
ATT nepřišel.(=lit. Simply (he) did_not_come.)
Oblékl se prostě.
MANN (=lit. (He) - dressed simply.)
In ambiguous cases the modification is assigned one of the functors according to the context. Cf.:
Prostě se oblékl a šel tam. (=lit. Simply (he) - dressed and went there.)
If the meaning is: he just dressed and went there, the node representing the adverb prostě (=simply) is assigned the
ATT functor; if this adverb characterizes the way in which somebody was dressed, the node is assigned the
Border with the
ACMP functor. Apart from the most common homonymy with the
ATT modifications often compete with several other functors, particularly when there is also formal homonymy. This happens e.g. with the prepositions s+7 and bez+2, which both primarily express the
ACMP meaning (see Section 6.1, "ACMP"). The choice between the two functors (
ATT) can be in certain cases highly problematic. The problem which of the two functors is closer to the meaning of the modification according to the available context always needs careful consideration: The modification with the
ATT functor has the meaning of the speaker's attitude. The speaker's interest is always present in the event. Cf.:
Odešel s kloboukem.
ACMP na hlavě. (=lit. (He) left with (a) hat on (his) head.)
Odešel s povzdechem.
ACMP (=lit. (He) left with (a) sigh)
Udělám to s radostí.
ATT (=lit. (I) will_do it with pleasure)
Border with the
ATT modifications can border on rhematizers. For details see also Section 6.1.2, "Homonymy: rhematizer - modal expressions (