7.1. ATT

Definition of the ATT functor

The ATT functor (attitude) is a functor for such an atomic node that represents an expression of speaker's evaluating or emotional attitude to the utterance contents (or its part).

Unlike other modifications, the modifications with the ATT functor characterize the communication situation, they signal communication functions of the utterance and they introduce pragmatic meanings into the utterance. They express speaker's attitudes like amazement, surprise, satisfaction, concern, indifference, regret etc.

NB! The functor ATT is also assigned to modifications that further specify the modal meanings of modal predicates. For more details see also Section, "Closer specification of modal meanings".

NB! For details on the syntactic nature of the ATT modifications see Section 11.1.3, "The semantic scope of modifications with the functors MOD and ATT".

Forms. Modifications with the ATT functor typically have a fixed lexical content, particularly in prepositional phrases. The basic forms of ATT modifications are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns referring to events (nouns ending with -ní and ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events") the modifications with the ATT functor can also be expressed by an agreeing form of an adjective (only marginally).


údajné.ATT poškozování zájmů státu (=lit. (the) alleged harm (of) interests (of) (the) state)

takzvané.ATT podnikání (=lit. (the) so-called business)

Figure 7.42. The ATT functor

The ATT functor

Je to bohudíky za námi. (=lit. Is it thank_God over -.)

7.1.1. Borderline cases with the ATT functor

Border with the MANN functor. ATT modifications can be formally close to other modifications. There is a frequent homonymy between the functors ATT and MANN. In such cases it is typical that the modification with the ATT functor (meaning: "it was simple, fair etc. that he did it") occurs clause-initially while the modification with the MANN functor (meaning: "it was simple, fair etc. in what way he did it ") occurs after the verb. Compare:

  • Prostě.ATT nepřišel.(=lit. Simply (he) did_not_come.)

  • Oblékl se prostě.MANN (=lit. (He) - dressed simply.)

In ambiguous cases the modification is assigned one of the functors according to the context. Cf.:

  • Prostě se oblékl a šel tam. (=lit. Simply (he) - dressed and went there.)

    If the meaning is: he just dressed and went there, the node representing the adverb prostě (=simply) is assigned the ATT functor; if this adverb characterizes the way in which somebody was dressed, the node is assigned the MANN functor.

Border with the ACMP functor. Apart from the most common homonymy with the MANN functor, ATT modifications often compete with several other functors, particularly when there is also formal homonymy. This happens e.g. with the prepositions s+7 and bez+2, which both primarily express the ACMP meaning (see Section 6.1, "ACMP"). The choice between the two functors (ACMP and ATT) can be in certain cases highly problematic. The problem which of the two functors is closer to the meaning of the modification according to the available context always needs careful consideration: The modification with the ATT functor has the meaning of the speaker's attitude. The speaker's interest is always present in the event. Cf.:

  • Odešel s kloboukem.ACMP na hlavě. (=lit. (He) left with (a) hat on (his) head.)

  • Odešel s povzdechem.ACMP (=lit. (He) left with (a) sigh)

  • Udělám to s radostí.ATT (=lit. (I) will_do it with pleasure)

Border with the RHEM functor. ATT modifications can border on rhematizers. For details see also Section 6.1.2, "Homonymy: rhematizer - modal expressions (ATT and MOD)".