3.2. TFHL

Definition of the TFHL functor

The TFHL functor (temporal: for how long) is a functor for a free modification that expresses a temporal meaning related to the question "for how long?"; it gives the length of duration of a state which is a result of the event expressed by the governing word.

Modifications with the TFHL functor are usually expressed by direct specification of time (přijel na tři dni (=lit. (He) came for three days.)).

Forms. The basic forms of TFHL modifications are:

NB! A modification with the TFHL functor is usually not realized by a dependent clause. A similar temporal modification, modifying a noun, however, can be expressed by a dependent clause (its effective root node is assigned the RSTR functor), e.g.:

Půjčili jsme si od nich auto na dobu.TFHL, co budeme.RSTR na výletě . (=lit. (We) borrowed - - - their car for (the) time when (we) will_be on (a) trip.)

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns refering to events (i.e. nouns ending with -ní and ; for details see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), TFHL modifications can also be expressed by agreeing forms of an adjectives.


kontejnery určené k dlouhodobému.TFHL uskladňování vyhořelého paliva z atomových reaktorů (=lit. containers reserved for long_term storage (of) burnt_out fuel from nuclear reactors)

dočasné.TFHL vyslání několika tisíc amerických vojáků do Chorvatska k ochraně mírových sil OSN (=lit. dispatch (of) several thousands American soldiers to Croatia to protect (the) peace forces (of) (the) UN)

Figure 7.11. The TFHL functor

The TFHL functor

Odjel na celý den. (=lit. (He) left for all day.)

3.2.1. Borderline cases with the TFHL functor

Border with the TOWH functor. The TFHL functor is close both in its semantics and form to temporal modifications with the meaning "for when?" (see Section 3.6, "TOWH"). In a particular construction, however, no ambiguity arises. TFHL modifications refer to the length of duration of an event/state, to an interval; TOWH modifications, on the other hand, do not refer to the legth of duration, but rather to a moment in time. Cf.:

  • Odjel na celé pondělí.TFHL (=lit. (He) left for (the) whole (of) Monday.)

    Přijel na půl.TFHL měsíce (=lit. (He) came for half (a) month)

    práce na (celý) rok.TFHL (=lit. work for (the) whole year)

  • vstupenka na pondělí.TOWH (=lit. ticket for Monday)

    Na příští měsíc.TOWH si nic nenaplánoval. (=lit. For (the) next month (he) - anything has_not_planned.)

    práce na příští rok.TOWH (=lit. work for (the) next year)

Borders with other functors. The TFHL functor can also border on functors for other than temporal meanings (due to the similarity in form). However, the choice of the functor in a particular context is usually unambiguous. Cf.:

  • Přijel do Prahy na celou dovolenou.(=lit. (He) came to Prague for all (his) holiday.)

    In this context, the modification na celou dovolenou (=lit. for all (his) holiday) expresses the legth of the stay and the effective root node is assigned the TFHL functor.

  • Přijel do Prahy na dovolenou. (=lit. (He) came to Prague on holiday.)

    The modification na dovolenou (=lit. on holiday) expresses rather the purpose than the lenght of the stay in Prague. Hence, it is assigned the INTT functor.