3.7. TPAR

Definition of the TPAR functor

The TPAR functor (temporal parallel, contemporaneous) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question "during what time?", or "simultaneously with what?".

A modification with the TPAR functor expresses the temporal extent of the event or state of the governing word either by direct specification of the time/duration (během pěti hodin (=during five hours), po celou hodinu (=during the whole hour)), or by specifying the temporal relation to another event; in such case it expresses simultaneity of two events (během snídaně (=during the breakfast), souběžně s přednáškou (=simultaneously with the lecture)).

Forms. The basic forms of TPAR modifications are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns referring to events (nouns ending with -ní and ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), TPAR modifications can also be expressed by an agreeing forms of adjectives (but this is rare).


současné.TPAR zrušení clearingového zúčtování a dovozní přirážky (=lit. simultaneous cancellation (of) clearing account and import surcharge)

Figure 7.16. The TPAR functor

The TPAR functor

Zatímco spala, přemýšlel jsem. (=lit. While (she) was_sleeping (I) was_thinking -.)

3.7.1. Borderline cases with the TPAR functor

Borders with other temporal functors. Many prepositions, esp. secondary prepositions, unambiguously express the TPAR meaning (současně_s (=simultaneously_with), během (=during)); however, with primary prepositions, the situation might be less straightforward as they are often ambiguous. Cf.:

  • Napsal to za dvě hodiny.THL (=lit. (He) wrote it in two hours.)

  • Za dvě hodiny.TPAR nic neudělal. (=lit. For two hours (he) anything has_not_done.)

A similar situation may arise with adverbs. Cf.:

  • Zamlada.TPAR byl neustále veselý. (=lit. When_young (he) was always cheerful.)

  • Napsal to ještě zamlada.TWHEN. (=lit. (He) wrote it still when_young.)

Border with the ACMP functor. The TPAR functor is close both in its semantics and its form to the ACMP functor (see Section 6.1, "ACMP"), esp. in its meaning "simultaneously with what? ". Whenever the prepositional phrase cannot be clearly interpreted as a temporal modification (two parallel events), the prepositional phrase is assigned the ACMP functor (accompaniment). Cf.:

  • Souběžně s přednáškou.TPAR probíhaly i semináře. (=lit. Simultaneously with (the) lecture were_running seminars.)

  • Souběžně s hřebíky.ACMP vyráběli i matky. (=lit. Simultaneously with nails (they) produced also nuts.)

Border with the CONTRD functor. The conjunction zatímco (=while) can introduce not only a dependent clause with the meaning of the TPAR functor, but also a dependent clause with the meaning of the CONTRD functor (see Section 9.2, "CONTRD"). For details see Section 9.2.1, "Borderline cases with the functor CONTRD".