English tectogrammatical layer in a nutshell



Node types

Types of edges

Node structure





Each dependency is labeled with a functor. Simply speaking, the functor describes the syntactico-semantic relation of a node to its effective parent node (i.e. disregarding non-dependency edges, such as coordinations). The adverbial functors denote a number of temporal and spatial relations, as well as contingency. Another distinct class of functors are functors denoting the tightest valency complementations (participants) of verbs and nouns. These are: ACT, PAT, ADDR, ORIG, EFF and the noun-specific APP, MAT, AUTH, ID. A detailed account on valency complementations is given in Section Valency.

The English treebank uses two functors that do not occur in the original tectogrammatical specification for Czech: NE and SM. NE is used in multiword expressions that are named entities. SM marks expressions such as in the aftermath of and in return for. Such expressions behave like prepositions, but, to an extent varying for each of them, the sequence "preposition - (determiner) - noun - preposition" can be interrupted e.g. by an adjective.

Some functors, however, do not quite fit the main definition and do not render the syntactico-semantic relation of a node to its effective parent node:

  • functors used for the effective root nodes of independent clauses - these functors carry the information regarding the type of the clause (construction) and they also refer to the very fact that these clauses are independent: PRED, DENOM, VOCAT, PARTL, PAR
  • functors used for paratactic structure root nodes - these express the type of the paratactic relation in question: ADVS, CONFR, CONJ, CONTRA, CSQ, DISJ, GRAD, REAS, APPS, OPER
  • functors for the dependent parts of complex lexical units: CPHR, DPHR, CM
  • the functor used for nodes representing foreign-language expressions: FPHR
  • functors for atomic nodes: ATT, MOD, PREC, RHEM, INTF

The information regarding the functor of each node is contained in its functor attribute. All functors are described (in alphabetical order) in the following list:

  • ACMP – adjunct expressing accompaniment (in the broad sense of the word):  Father with Mother.ACMP
  • ACT  – argument - Actor: Peter.ACT is asleep.
  • ADDR – argument - Addressee: He sent a present to a friend.ADDR
  • ADVS – paratactic structure root node - adversative relation: He saw it, but.ADVS he didn't hear a thing.
  • AIM – adjunct expressing purpose: She does a lot of training in order to lose weight.AIM
  • APP – adnominal adjunct expressing appurtenance: my.APP castle
  • APPS – the root node of an appositional structure: mammals, such as.APPS apes
  • ATT – atomic expression expressing the speaker's attitude: This is, of course.ATT, true.
  • AUTH – adnominal adjunct referring to the author (of sth): Picasso's.AUTH pictures
  • BEN – adjunct expressing that sth is happening for the benefit (or disadvantage) of sb/sth: He is working for the company.BEN
  • CAUS – adjunct expressing the cause (of sth): The losses occurred due to.CAUS poor management.
  • CNCS – adjunct expressing concession: Although he was successful as a student.CNCS, he wasn't equally successful in practice.
  • CM – conjunction modifier: father and also.CM his son
  • COMPL – adjunct - predicative complement: She returned exhausted.COMPL
  • COND – adjunct expressing a condition (for sth else to happen): If the weather is good.COND, we will stay outside.
  • CONFR – paratactic structure root node - confrontation: Paul is getting better, and in contrast.CONFR John is still having bad grades.
  • CONJ – paratactic structure root node - simple coordination/conjunction: Paul and.CONJ John
  • CONTRA – paratactic structure root node - two entities are in conflict (in a match, fight etc.): father vs..CONTRA son
  • CONTRD – adjunct expressing confrontation: While wages are decreasing.CONTRD, prices are rising
  • CPHR – nominal part of a complex predicate: to have a plan.CPHR
  • CPR – adjunct expressing comparison: more than a million.CPR
  • CRIT – adjunct expressing a criterion/measure/standard: Play the game according to the rules.CRIT
  • CSQ – paratactic structure root node - consequential relation: He cheated, therefore.CSQ he was fired.
  • DENOM – effective root node of an independent nominal clause (which is not parenthetical): Jordan College.DENOM
  • DIFF – adjunct expressing a difference (between two entities, states etc.): He is two centimeters.DIFF taller.
  • DIR1 – directional adjunct - answering the question "where from": He came from Prague.DIR1
  • DIR2 – directional adjunct - answering the question "which way": They are walking through the woods.DIR2
  • DIR3 – directional adjunct - answering the question "where to": He came home.DIR3
  • DISJ – paratactic structure root node - disjunctive relation: Either I will go, or.DISJ you will.
  • DPHR – dependent part of an idiomatic expression: kick the bucket.DPHR
  • EFF – argument - Effect: He was elected chairman.EFF
  • EXT – adjunct expressing extent: He is very.EXT nice.
  • FPHR – part of a foreign-language expression: faux.FPHR pas.FPHR
  • GRAD – paratactic structure root node - gradation: He not only lied, but.GRAD he also made them a lot of other harm.
  • HER – adjunct expressing inheritance: a theory named after the researchers.HER
  • ID – nominative of identity and explicative genitive: Windsor.ID castle; death.ID penalty
  • INTT – adjunct expressing intention: He went shopping.INTT
  • LOC – locative adjunct - answering the question "where": He works in Prague.LOC
  • MANN – adjunct expressing the manner (of doing sth)    He speaks aloud.MANN
  • MAT – adnominal argument referring to the content of a container: a glass of water.MAT
  • MEANS – adjunct expressing a means (of doing sth): He writes with a pen.MEANS
  • MOD – atomic expression with a modal meaning: He works probably.MOD part-time.
  • NE – part of a named entity: New York.NE Stock Exchange
  • OPER – paratactic structure root node referring to a mathematical operation or interval: from five to.OPER ten hours
  • ORIG – argument - Origo: made from durable plastic.ORIG
  • PAR – effective root node of a parenthetic (verbal or nominal) clause: I am coming on December 13th (Friday.PAR)
  • PARTL – effective root node of an independent interjectional clause: Hurray.PARTL, we won!
  • PAT – argument - Patient: He is cooking lunch.PAT
  • PREC – atomic expression referring to the preceding context: And.PREC then he left.
  • PRED – effective root node of an independent verbal clause (which is not parenthetical): Pavel gave.PRED a flower to Martina.
  • REAS – paratactic structure root node - causal relation: Scenario 1 reimburses the Pentagon for inflation only -.REAS it slopes upward at 4% per year.
  • REG – adjunct expressing a circumstance that the main predication takes into account: Considering the weather.REG, it's not possible to plan anything.
  • RESL – adjunct expressing the result/effect of something: He is speaking so softly that we can't understand.RESL what he's saying.
  • RESTR – adjunct expressing an exception/restriction: Except for you.RESTR, everybody was there.
  • RHEM – atomic expression - rhematizer: Only.RHEM Karel left.
  • RSTR – adnominal adjunct modifying its governing noun: a big.RSTR house
  • SM – complex prepositional expression: in the light.SM of the new information
  • SUBS – adjunct expressing that sb/sth substitutes for sb/sth else: Instead of Father.SUBS, our uncle took action.
  • TFHL – temporal adjunct - answering the question "for how long": He came to stay for a month.TFHL
  • TFRWH – temporal adjunct - answering the question "from when": He shifted the negotiations from Saturday.TFRWH to today.
  • THL – temporal adjunct - answering the questions "how long" and "how long": He managed to do it in a week.THL
  • THO – temporal adjunct - answering the questions "how often" and "how many times": I work on that every day.THO
  • TOWH – temporal adjunct - answering the question "to when": He moved the negotiations from Saturday to today.TOWH
  • TPAR – temporal adjunct - answering the questions "in parallel/simultaneously with what" and "during what time": During our holiday.TPAR it didn't rain once.
  • TSIN – temporal adjunct - answering the question "since when" : He has been living here since 1997.TSIN
  • TTILL – temporal adjunct - answering the question "until when": I will have it done by Friday.TTILL
  • TWHEN – temporal adjunct - answering the question "when": I'll come tomorrow.TWHEN
  • VOCAT – effective root node of an independent vocative clause: Hannah.VOCAT, give it to me!