Semantic adverbs can be divided into the following subgroups:
non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated (see Section 6.3.1, "Non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated");
non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated (see Section 6.3.2, "Non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated");
gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated (see Section 6.3.3, "Gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated");
gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated (see Section 6.3.4, "Gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated");
definite pronominal semantic adverbs (see Section 6.3.5, "Definite pronominal semantic adverbs");
indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs (see Section 6.3.6, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs").
sempos
= adv.denot.ngrad.nneg
The subgroup of non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated consists of:
adverbs that are neither gradable nor can be negated (and which are not adjectival at the same time, i.e. they are not represented by adjectival t-lemmas).
Nodes of this subgroup have no grammatemes.
Examples:
Má bezesporu pravdu. (=She is indisputably right)
Zůstal dnes doma. (=He stayed at home today)
Bydlí nahoře. (=He lives upstairs)
sempos
= adv.denot.ngrad.neg
The subgroup of non-gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated consists of:
adverbs that are not gradable but which can be negated (and which are not adjectival at the same time, i.e. they are not represented by adjectival t-lemmas); e.g.: příliš (=too (much)).
Denominating semantic adverbs of this subgroup have only one grammateme, namely:
negation
(see Section 5.7, "The negation
grammateme").
The negation grammateme. The neg1
value is assigned if the node represents an adverb negated at the surface level. The neg0
value is assigned if the node represents an adverb that is not negated at the surface level. For example:
Je to nepříliš dobré. [negation
=neg1
; t_lemma
= příliš] (=It is not_very good)
Je příliš sebevědomý. [negation
=neg0
; t_lemma
= příliš] (=He is too self-confident)
sempos
= adv.denot.grad.nneg
The subgroup of gradable denominating semantic adverbs that cannot be negated consists of:
adverbs that are gradable but which cannot be negated (and which are not adjectival at the same time, i.e. they are not represented by adjectival t-lemmas); e.g.: dole, pozdě, brzy (=down, late, soon/early).
This subgroup of denominating semantic adverbs have only one grammateme, namely:
degree degcmp
(see Section 5.8, "The degcmp
grammateme (degree)").
The degcmp grammateme. The value of the grammateme usually corresponds to the value of the morphological category. For example:
Je už příliš pozdě. [degcmp
=pos
] (=It is already too late)
Přijdu o něco dříve než včera. [degcmp
=comp
; t_lemma
= brzy] (=I will come a bit earlier than yesterday)
Dům ležel nejníže z celé vesnice. [degcmp
=sup
; t_lemma
= dole] (=The house was situated at the lowest point of the whole village)
As for the acomp
value, there is no corresponding value of the morphological category of degree; it is assigned to nodes representing frozen comparative forms not expressing comparison. For example:
dříve [degcmp
=acomp
; t_lemma
= brzy] či později [degcmp
=acomp
; t_lemma
= pozdě] (=sooner or later)
sempos
= adv.denot.grad.neg
The subgroup of gradable denominating semantic adverbs that can be negated consists of:
adverbs that are gradable and that can be negated as well (and which are not adjectival at the same time, i.e. they are not represented by adjectival t-lemmas); e.g.: daleko, blízko (=far, close).
This subgroup of denominating semantic adverbs have the following grammatemes:
degree: degcmp
(see Section 5.8, "The degcmp
grammateme (degree)"),
negation
(see Section 5.7, "The negation
grammateme").
The degcmp grammateme. The value of the grammateme usually corresponds to the value of the morphological category. For example:
Petr bydlí daleko za Prahou.[degcmp
=pos
] (=Petr lives far from (lit. behind) Praha)
Blíž bydlí Pavel. [degcmp
=comp
; t_lemma
= blízko] (=Pavel lives closer)
Nejblíž bydlí Pavlína. [degcmp
=sup
; t_lemma
= blízko] (=Pavlína lives nearest (to Praha/us..))
As for the acomp
value, there is no corresponding value of the morphological category of degree; it is assigned to nodes representing frozen comparative forms not expressing comparison. For example:
blíže nespecifikovaná trhavina [degcmp
=acomp
; t_lemma
= blízko] (=further (lit.closer) unspecified explosive)
The negation grammateme. The neg1
value is assigned if the node represents an adverb negated at the surface level. The neg0
value is assigned if the adverb occurs in its positive form. For example:
Pracuje nedaleko od domova. [negation
=neg1
; t_lemma
= daleko] (=He works not_far from his home)
Pracuje daleko od domova. [negation
=neg0
; t_lemma
= daleko] (=He works far from his home)
Náš cíl je už blízko. [negation
=neg0
; t_lemma
= blízko] (=Our destination is close)
sempos
= adv.pron.def
The subgroup of definite pronominal semantic adverbs consists of:
definite demonstrative and identifying pronominal adverbs (e.g.: tady, tam, teď, tak, proto, tamtéž (=here, there, now, so, therefore, at_the_same_place),
adverbs derived from these (e.g.: tudy (=this_way) is derived from tady (=here), odteď (=from_now) is derived from teď (=now); see Section 1.1, "Types of the syntactic derivation").
Nodes of this subgroup have no grammatemes.
Pronominal adverbs with directional meanings (answering the questions "where from", "which way", "where to") are represented by the t-lemma of the corresponding locative adverb. Pronominal adverbs with different temporal meanings (answering the questions "from when", "until when") are represented by the t-lemma of the corresponding adverb with the simplest temporal meaning (answering the question "kdy (=when)").
Adverbs tu (the locative meaning) and zde are considered variants of the adverb tady (=here) - and are all represented by the t-lemma tady.
Adverbs tu (=the temporal meaning) and nyní are considered variants of the adverb teď (=now) - and are represented by the t-lemma teď.
Adverbs pak and poté are considered variants of the adverb potom (=then) and are all represented by the t-lemma potom.
What is the actual adverb represented by a given node follows from the combination of the t-lemma and the functor.
For example: a node with the t-lemma tady (=here) and the DIR1
functor represents the adverb odtud (=from_here), a node with the t-lemma teď (=now) and the TSIN
functor represents the adverb odteď (=from_now) etc.
Individual t-lemmas of definite pronominal adverbs, their derivatives and functors assigned to them are presented in Table 5.20, "Definite (locative/directional) pronominal semantic adverbs" and Table 5.21, "Definite (temporal) pronominal semantic adverbs".
The first row presents the t-lemmas and, in each column, there are adverbs represented by these t-lemmas. The first column lists the functors which are to be assigned to the given t-lemma if it represents the adverb in the same row as the functor.
For example: the adverb tamtudy (=that_way) is represented by the t-lemma tam (=there) and the DIR2
functor; doteď (=until_now) is represented by teď (=now) with the TTIL
functor etc.
Not all types of directional and temporal modifications are available for a particular t-lemma (cf. the -
symbol in the relevant slot).
sempos
= adv.pron.indef
The subgroup of indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs consists of:
indefinite pronominal adverbs (e.g.: kdy, jak (=when, how), proč (=why)),
adverbs derived from these: někde / nikde (=somewhere / nowhere), někdy / nikdy, nějak / nijak (=sometime / never, somehow / in no way) (i.e. indefinite, interrogative, negative and totalizing adverbs; see Section 1.2, "Types of lexical derivation"),
directional or various temporal adverbs of the type kudy / někudy, kam / nikam, odkdy / dokdy (=which_way / some_way, where_to / to_no_place, from_when / until_when) etc. (see Section 1.3, "Mixed type").
Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs have only one grammateme, namely:
indeftype
(see Section 5.6, "The indeftype
grammateme").
The indeftype grammateme. The subgroup of indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs only makes use of four t-lemmas: kde (=where), kdy (=when), jak (=how) and proč (=why). Other adverbs are taken to be their derivatives. Two types of derivation are distinguished:
t-lemma + the indeftype
grammateme.
Indefinite, interrogative, negative and totalizing pronominal adverbs are represented by the t-lemmas of their corresponding relative adverbs.
The semantic feature in which a given adverb differs from the t-lemma it is represented by is encoded in the indeftype
grammateme.
t-lemma + functor.
Pronominal adverbs with a directional meaning (answering the questions "where from", "which way", "where to") are represented by the t-lemma of the corresponding locative adverb (kde (=where)).
Similarly, pronominal adverbs with different temporal meanings (answering the questions "from when", "until when" etc.) are represented by the t-lemma of the corresponding adverb with the simplest temporal meaning (kdy (=when)).
Which directional or locative adverb the given node represents follows from the combination of the t-lemma and the functor.
Type A derivation. The derivation making use of the indeftype
grammateme values is the only one used with the adverbs jak (=how) and proč (=why). Which adverbs are represented by which t-lemmas and which values of the indeftype
grammateme they get is summarized in Table 5.22, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs".
The first row presents the t-lemmas and, in each column, there are adverbs represented by these t-lemmas. The first column lists the values of the indeftype
grammateme which are to be assigned to the given t-lemma if it represents the adverb in the same row as the value of the grammateme.
For example: the adverb všelijak (=in_various_ways) is represented by the t-lemma jak (=how) and the value indef6
.
The list is not exhaustive; in some cases there are other variants as well (e.g. apart from všelijak there are also bůhvíjak, kdovíjak and other variants). Certain types of pronominal adverbs are not existent at all (e.g. there is no totalizer for jak; cf. the - symbol in the appropriate slot).
Table 5.22. Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs
t-lemma: | ||
the value of the indeftype grammateme: |
jak | proč |
relat | jak | proč |
indef1 | nějak | - |
indef2 | jaksi | - |
indef3 | jakkoli(v) | - |
indef4 | lecjak, ledajak | - |
indef5 | - | - |
indef6 | všelijak | kdovíproč |
inter | jak, jakpak | proč |
negat | nijak | - |
total1 | - | - |
total2 | - | - |
Type A + B derivation. Both types of derivation are used with adverbs derived from kde (=where) and kdy (=when). The t-lemma kde, then, represents the relative, indefinite, interrogative, negative and totalizing adverbs as well as their directional counterparts. Similarly, the t-lemma kdy represents the corresponding relative, indefinite, interrogative, negative and totalizing adverbs and their counterparts carrying various temporal meanings. All derivatives represented by the t-lemma kde are presented in Table 5.23, "Indefinite (locative/directional) pronominal semantic adverbs", the derivatives represented by kdy are in Table 5.24, "Indefinite (temporal) pronominal semantic adverbs".
The first row lists the functors, the first column lists the values of the indeftype
grammateme. Whenever the t-lemma (kde or kdy) represents one of the listed adverbs, it gets the functor in the head of the column the adverb is situated in and the value of the indeftype
grammateme that is in the same row as the adverb.
For example: the adverb nikudy (=lit. no_way) is represented by the t-lemma kde, the DIR2
functor and the negat
value of the indeftype
grammateme; navždy (=forever) is represented by kdy, the TFHL
functor and the total1
value of the indeftype
grammateme.
Certain types of adverbs are not existent at all (which is indicated by the - symbol in the appropriate slot).
Table 5.23. Indefinite (locative/directional) pronominal semantic adverbs
t-lemma: kde | functor: | |||
the value of the indeftype grammateme: |
LOC |
DIR1 |
DIR2 |
DIR3 |
relat | kde | odkud | kudy | kam |
indef1 | někde | odněkud | někudy | někam |
indef2 | kdesi | odkudsi | kudysi | kamsi |
indef3 | kdekoli(v) | odkudkoli(v) | kudykoli(v) | kamkoli(v) |
indef4 | ledakde, leckde... | - | - | - |
indef5 | - | - | - | - |
indef6 | málokde... | - | - | - |
inter | kde, kdepak | odkud | kudy | kam |
negat | nikde | odnikud | nikudy | nikam |
total1 | všude | odevšad / odevšud | všudy | všude |
total2 | - | - | - | - |
Table 5.24. Indefinite (temporal) pronominal semantic adverbs
t-lemma: kdy | functor: | ||||
the value of the indeftype grammateme: |
TWHEN |
TSIN |
TTIL |
TFHL |
THO |
relat | kdy | odkdy | dokdy / dokud | - | - |
indef1 | někdy | - | - | - | - |
indef2 | kdysi | - | - | - | - |
indef3 | - | - | - | - | kdykoli(v) |
indef4 | ledakdy... | - | - | - | - |
indef5 | - | - | - | - | - |
indef6 | málokdy... | - | - | - | - |
inter | kdy, kdypak | odkdy | dokdy / dokud | - | - |
negat | nikdy | - | - | - | - |
total1 | vždy / vždycky | - | - | navždy / navždycky | - |
total2 | - | - | - | - | - |