Syntactic derivation concerns the cases in which the base word is to be used in a different syntactic environment (function) while the core of its meaning stays preserved.
The following types of syntactic derivation can be distinguished:
Possessive adjectives are taken to be derived from nouns and are represented by their t-lemmas (i.e. by the t-lemmas of the base nouns).
Examples:
matčin (=mother's) is represented by matka (=mother);
Pavlova (=Pavel's) → Pavel;
prezidentův (=president's) → prezident;
kamarádových (=friend's.LOC.pl) → kamarád.
Similarly, possessive pronouns use the t-lemmas of their base words, which are personal pronouns. Personal and possessive pronouns (including the reflexives) are represented by a single t-lemma (#PersPron
; see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes").
Examples:
tobě (=you.DAT/LOC.sg) is represented by a node with the #PersPron
t-lemma;
mě (=I.GEN/ACC) → #PersPron
;
vám (you.DAT.pl) → #PersPron
;
oni (=they) → #PersPron
;
sobě(=self.DAT/LOC) → #PersPron
.
náš (=our) → #PersPron
;
její (=her) → #PersPron
;
svoje (=self's) → #PersPron
.
See Section 6.1.3, "Definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns".
Deadjectival adverbs are represented by nodes with the t-lemmas of the corresponding adjectives.
Examples:
pěkně (=nicely) is represented by pěkný (=nice);
rychle (=quickly) → rychlý (=quick);
pořádně (=thoroughly) → pořádný (=thorough).
Certain pronominal directional adverbs are taken to be derived from locative adverbs; hence, they are represented by nodes with the t-lemmas of the corresponding locative adverbs.
Příklady:
tudy (=this_way) is represented by tady (=here);
odtud (=from_here) → tady (=here);
sem (=here.directional) → tady (=here.locative);
odtamtud (=from_there) → tam (=there).
Similarly, certain pronominal temporal adverbs (answering the questions "od kdy (=from when)", "do kdy (=until when)" etc.) are understood as derived from adverbs carrying the simplest temporal meaning (i.e. the one answering the question "kdy? (=when)") and are represented by their t-lemmas.
Examples:
doteď (=until_now) is represented by teď (=now);
doposud (=until_now) → teď (=now).
The m-lemmas of words that are taken to be derived by means of syntactic derivation can be deduced from the used t-lemma together with the assigned functor. For example, the m-lemma matčin (=mother's) corresponds to the combination of the t-lemma matka (=mother) and the functor APP
(type A, similarly type B); the m-lemma tudy (=this_way) corresponds to the combination of the t-lemma tady (=here) and the functor DIR2
(type D) etc.
!!! Types of syntactic derivation not represented at the tectogrammatical level as such. Other types of syntactic derivatives are not represented as such at the tectogrammatical level so far; their m-lemmas are used instead. These are:
deadverbial adjectives.
For example dnešní (=today's) is represented by the t-lemma dnešní and not by the t-lemma dnes (=today).
verbal and event nouns (if they are cases of syntactic derivation).
For example vyrábění, setí (=producing, sowing) and výroba, setba (=production, sowing) are represented by the t-lemmas vyrábění, setí and výroba, setba and not by the t-lemmas of the corresponding base verbs.
deadjectival nouns of the type mladost (=youth) and naivita (=naivety).
In the current version of PDT, neither these are represented by the t-lemmas of their base adjectives.
deverbal adjectives of the type vyrábějící (=producing) and vyrobený (=produced).
In the current version of PDT, these are not represented by the t-lemmas of their base verbs.