The term t-lemma substitutes is used for artificial t-lemmas beginning with #. T-lemma substitutes are assigned to:
newly established nodes that are not copies of other nodes.
(Copied nodes have the t-lemmas of the original nodes.)
nodes representing selected types of words/symbols present at the surface structure. These are:
personal and possessive pronouns.
Nodes representing personal and possessive pronouns have the #PersPron
t-lemma.
punctuation marks and other symbols.
Nodes representing punctuation marks and other (non-alphabetical/non-numerical) symbols have the following t-lemma substitutes:
& is represented by a node with the #Amp
t-lemma;
% → #Percnt
;
* → #Ast
;
period → #Period
;
three dots → #Period3
;
comma → #Comma
;
colon → #Colon
;
dash and hyphen → #Dash
;
slash → #Slash
;
semicolon →#Semicolon
;
bracket →#Bracket
.
NB! Not every punctuation mark is represented by a node at the tectogrammatical level. For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
!!! The punctuation marks with the corresponding t-lemma substitutes #Colon
, #Dash
or #Slash
are represented only in the case they are relevant for the semantic interpretation. For example, a colon (node) representing division, proportion, introducing direct speech etc. has always the #Colon
t-lemma.
syntactic negation.
A node representing syntactic negation (expressed by attaching the prefix ne- to a verb) has the #Neg
t-lemma. For more details see Section 13, "Expressions of negation and affirmation".
List of all t-lemma substitutes (in alphabetical order). The following list comprises all t-lemma substitutes occurring in tectogrammatical trees. The t-lemmas are in alphabetical order and it is always indicated whether they represent a word/symbol present at the surface structure or whether they correspond to a newly established node (with no counterpart at the surface level). Furthermore, it is specified which node type is usually connected with a particular t-lemma.
#Amp
= the t-lemma assigned to the " & " symbol (present at the surface level).
nodetype
= coap
#AsMuch
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node used for introducing consecutive clauses. Fore more details see Section 7, "Constructions with a dependent consecutive clause".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Ast
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing the " * " symbol (present at the surface level).
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Benef
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node representing the beneficiary (not present at the surface level) in control constructions. For more details see Section 2.4, "Control".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Bracket
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing a bracket (" ( " or " ) ") (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 19.2, "Text in brackets and within dashes".
nodetype
= coap
#Colon
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing the ":" symbol (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
, or nodetype
= qcomplex
#Comma
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing the comma (" ,") (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
, or nodetype
= qcomplex
#Cor
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node representing the (usually inexpressible) controllee in control constructions. For more details see Section 2.4, "Control".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Dash
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing a dash or hyphen (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
, or nodetype
= qcomplex
#EmpNoun
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing non-expressed nouns (i.e. absent at the surface level) governing syntactic adjectives. For more details see Section 12.1.2.2, "Grammatical ellipsis of the governing noun".
nodetype
= complex
#EmpVerb
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing verbal predicates absent at the surface structure. For more details see Section 12.1.1.2, "Grammatical ellipsis of the governing verb".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Equal
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes used in comparative constructions. For more details see Section 4, "Constructions with the meaning of "comparison"".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Forn
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing the governing node of a foreign-language expression. For more details see Section 9, "Foreign-language expressions".
nodetype
= list
#Gen
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node representing a general participant absent at the surface level. For more details see Section 2.4.1, "General arguments and unspecified Actors".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Idph
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node serving as an auxiliary node in so called identifying expressions. For more details see Section 8, "Identifying expressions".
nodetype
= list
#Neg
= the t-lemma used for the syntactic negation (expressed by the ne- prefix) For more details see Section 13, "Expressions of negation and affirmation".
nodetype
= atom
#Oblfm
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node representing an obligatory adjunct absent at the surface level. For more details see Section 12.2.1.3, "Ellipsis of an obligatory free modification (t-lemma substitutes #Oblfm
and #Rcp
)".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Percnt
= the t-lemma assigned to the " % " symbol (present at the surface level).
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Period
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing a period (" .") (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
#Period3
= the t-lemma assigned to nodes representing three dots ("...") (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
, nodetype
= qcomplex
#PersPron
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing personal or possessive pronouns (incl. the reflexives); this applies both to newly established nodes and to those present at the surface level. If a node with the #PersPron
t-lemma is newly established, deletion is involved. For more details see Section 12.2.1.1, "Textual ellipsis of an obligatory argument (the t-lemma substitutes #PersPron
, #Cor
, #QCor
a #Rcp
)".
nodetype
= complex
#QCor
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing a (usually inexpressible) valency modification in quasi-control constructions. For more details see Section 2.5, "Quasi-control".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Rcp
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing participants that are left out as a result of reciprocation. For more details see Section 2.4.2, "Reciprocity".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Semicolon
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing the " ;" symbol (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
#Separ
= the t-lemma assigned to an auxiliary node occasionally used in coordination constructions (with no counterpart at the surface level). For more details see Section 6.1, "Representing parataxis in a tectogrammatical tree".
nodetype
= coap
#Slash
= the t-lemma assigned to a node representing the " /" symbol (present at the surface level). For more details see Section 18, "Punctuation".
nodetype
= coap
#Some
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing the nominal part of verbonominal predicates (not present at the surface level), used mainly in comparative constructions. For more details see Section 4, "Constructions with the meaning of "comparison"".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Total
= the t-lemma assigned to a newly established node, needed in a special kind of constructions that are used for describing an exception to something. For more details see Section 6, "Constructions signifying "restriction" and "exceptional conjoining"".
nodetype
= qcomplex
#Unsp
= the t-lemma assigned to newly established nodes representing valency modifications not present at the surface level the semantic content of which is very vague (non-specific). For more details see Section 2.4.1, "General arguments and unspecified Actors".
nodetype
= qcomplex