However, there are several cases where a punctuation mark is represented by a node in the tectogrammatical tree. The t-lemma of this node is then the t-lemma substitute for the appropriate punctuation mark (see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes"):
full stop (period):
Cases where these punctuation marks are represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a node are as follows:
component of a foreign-language text.
Out Of The Body - [
FPHR] Fig. 8.295
All expressions which are components of a foreign-language text, including punctuation marks and other characters, are represented by separate nodes with the functor
FPHR (for more on this see Section 9, "Foreign-language expressions").
Evidently, all punctuation marks can occur as components of foreign-language text.
functions of a co-ordinating connective or operator.
Image jsou, ach, vždy tak krásné; skutečnost holá a ohyzdná. [
CONJ] (=Images are always oh so beautiful, the reality bare and ugly.) Fig. 8.296
V armádě je nepořádek a dějí se v ní hrozné věci... obchází ji strach, uvedl ve středečních LN místopředseda bezpečnostního výboru parlamentu. [
CONJ] (=There is disorder in the army and terrible things go on there… fear abounds, stated the deputy chairman of the parliamentary security committee in Wednesday's edition of LN (Lidové noviny - People's Daily).)
CONJ] (=lit. Zagreb/Sarajevo/Atlanta)
100 : 3,68 = 27 [
If a punctuation mark functions as a co-ordinating connective or operator it is represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a node standing for the root node of the paratactic structure (for more on this see Section 6, "Parataxis" and Section 16, "Co-ordinating connectives and operators").
The function of a co-ordinating connective or operator can be fulfilled by all punctuation marks, except perhaps the full stop (period).
predicate function .
Šerák - 1353 metrů. [
PRED] (=Mt. Šerák - 1353 metres.) Fig. 8.297
Její cena za manažera: 80 - 250 tisíc šilinků. [
PRED] (=Their price for a manager: 80 - 250 thousand schillings)
A punctuation mark functioning as a predicate is represented as a node with the functor
PRED (for more on this see Section 4.1, "Verbal clauses").
The predicate function is adopted particularly by the comma, the dash and the colon.
function of a modification not expressed in words
The function of a modification not expressed in words can be adopted by three dots, particularly in the following cases:
three dots stand for the last constituent of a sequence of co-ordinated elements.
Nechybějí tu ani ozvuky punku, blues, rock'n'rollu, popu, bílého reggae... [
ACT] (=And here are heard as well, of course, the strains of punk, blues, rock'n'roll, pop, white reggae...)
If three dots express the last constituent of a sequence they are represented according to the instructions in Section 18.104.22.168, "Coordination with "atd.", "apod.", "aj."", as a node with a functor that is congruent with the functors of the nodes for the other co-ordinated (terminal) constituents.
three dots stand for a part of the sentence not expressed in words (modification, entire clause).
To nás rozhořčilo tak, že... [
RESL] (=That annoyed us so much that…) Fig. 8.298
A přece... [
PRED] (=After all…) Fig. 8.299
Lze tak snadno aktualizovat předrevoluční dopis či článek prostou náhradou soudruh za pan a KSČ za... [
EFF] (=You can so easily update a pre-revolutionary letter or article simply by replacing comrade with Mr and CPCS with…)
If three dots stand for a part of a sentence not expressed in words they are represented by a node with an appropriate functor, corresponding to the function of the non-expressed part.
Figure 8.296. Punctuation
Image jsou, ach, vždy tak krásné; skutečnost holá a ohyzdná. (=lit. Images are oh always so beautiful, reality bare and ugly.)