In this section annotation rules are described for expressions denoting syntactic negation and affirmation (see Section 13, "Modality and negation"), which are represented in the tectogrammatical trees by separate nodes. These are:
the particles ano (=yes), ne (=no/not), nikoli (=no; not at all), nikoliv (=no; not at all) (possibly others, such as: jistě (=certainly), určitě (=definitely)),
the prefix ne- in negative forms of a verb (represented by a separate node with the t-lemma substitute
These expressions may fulfil the following functions:
a rhematizing function (see Section 13.1, "Negating and affirmative expressions as rhematizers"),
the function of (an independent) non-verbal clause (see Section 13.2, "Negating and affirmative expressions as non-verbal clauses"),
the function of an expression modifying a co-ordinating connective (see Section 13.3, "Negating expressions as conjunction modifiers"),
the function of a (free or also a valency) modification of a verb, if they are used metalinguistically (see Section 13.4, "Negating and affirmative expressions used in a metalinguistic sense").