Chapter 3. Node types

Tectogrammatical tree nodes are divided into eight groups; these are called node types. The node types are defined either on the basis of the tectogrammatical lemma (t-lemma, see Chapter 4, Tectogrammatical lemma (t-lemma)) assigned to a node, or on the basis of its functor, or both.

For any node type, essentially the same rules regarding direct daughter nodes (of a given node) apply.

The following node types are recognized:

The node type information is encoded in the value of the nodetype attribute. The nodetype attribute has eight possible values and applies to every node in the tectogrammatical tree. The attribute values are listed in Table 3.1, "Values of the nodetype attribute".

Table 3.1. Values of the nodetype attribute


technical root node


atomic node


paratactic structure root node


list structure root node


node representing a foreign-language expression


node representing the dependent part of an idiomatic expression


complex node


quasi-complex node

Node-type hierarchy. The node-type hierarchy is presented in Fig. 3.1. The abbreviations on the second level are the values of the nodetype attribute. Complex nodes are further divided (as the only node type): into four groups (semantic nouns, semantic adjectives, semantic adverbs and semantic verbs). All these categories (semantic word categories/parts of speech), except for the semantic verbs, are further classified. The inner structure of these semantic categories is described in Section 2.1, "Relation between the semantic and traditional parts of speech"; see also Fig. 5.2, Fig. 5.3 and Fig. 5.4.

Figure 3.1. Node-type hierarchy.

Node-type hierarchy.