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Node types

Types of edges

Node structure





Additional specifications

In this text we present the main principles of the tectogrammatical representation applied to English and use English examples, but features that are not language-specific to English apply to the Czech tectogrammatical representation as well.

Each dependency is labeled with a functor. Simply speaking, the functor describes the syntactico-semantic relation of a node to its effective parent node (i.e. disregarding non-dependency edges, such as coordinations). The adverbial functors denote a number of temporal and spatial relations, as well as contingency. Another distinct class of functors are functors denoting the tightest valency complementations (participants) of verbs and nouns. These are: ACT, PAT, ADDR, ORIG, EFF and the noun-specific APP, MAT, AUTH, ID. A detailed account on valency complementations is given in Section Valency.

The English part of the treebank uses two functors that do not occur in the Czech part: NE and SM. NE is used in multiword expressions that are named entities. SM marks expressions such as in the aftermath of and in return for. Such expressions behave like prepositions, but, to an extent varying for each of them, the sequence "preposition - (determiner) - noun - preposition" can be interrupted e.g. by an adjective.

Some functors, however, do not quite fit the main definition and do not render the syntactico-semantic relation of a node to its effective parent node:

  • functors used for the effective root nodes of independent clauses - these functors carry the information regarding the type of the clause (construction) and they also refer to the very fact that these clauses are independent: PRED, DENOM, VOCAT, PARTL, PAR
  • functors used for paratactic structure root nodes - these express the type of the paratactic relation in question: ADVS, CONFR, CONJ, CONTRA, CSQ, DISJ, GRAD, REAS, APPS, OPER
  • functors for the dependent parts of complex lexical units: CPHR, DPHR, CM
  • the functor used for nodes representing foreign-language expressions: FPHR
  • functors for atomic nodes: ATT, MOD, PREC, RHEM, INTF

The information regarding the functor of each node is contained in its functor attribute. All functors are described (in alphabetical order) in the following table.

Functor Meaning Example
ACMP adjunct expressing accompaniment (in the broad sense of the word) Father with Mother.ACMP
ACT argument - Actor Peter.ACT is asleep.
ADDR argument - Addressee He sent a present to a friend.ADDR
ADVS paratactic structure root node - adversative relation He saw it, but.ADVS he didn't hear a thing.
AIM adjunct expressing purpose She does a lot of training in order to lose weight.AIM.
APP adnominal adjunct expressing appurtenance my.APP castle
APPS the root node of an appositional structure mammals, such as.APPS apes
ATT atomic expression expressing the speaker's attitude This is, of course.ATT, true.
AUTH adnominal adjunct referring to the author (of sth) Picasso's.AUTH pictures
BEN adjunct expressing that sth is happening for the benefit (or disadvantage) of sb/sth He is working for the company.BEN
CAUS adjunct expressing the cause (of sth) The losses occurred due to.CAUS poor management
CNCS adjunct expressing concession Although he was successful as a student.CNCS, he wasn't equally successful in practice.
CM conjunction modifier father and also.CM his son
COMPL adjunct - predicative complement She returned exhausted.COMPL
COND adjunct expressing a condition (for sth else to happen) If the weather is good.COND, we will stay outside.
CONFR paratactic structure root node - confrontation Paul is getting better, and in contrast.CONFR John is still having bad grades.
CONJ paratactic structure root node - simple coordination/conjunction Paul and.CONJ John
CONTRA paratactic structure root node - two entities are in conflict (in a match, fight etc.) father vs..CONTRA son
CONTRD adjunct expressing confrontation While wages are decreasing.CONTRD, prices are rising
CPHR the nominal part of a complex predicate to have a plan.CPHR
CPR adjunct expressing comparison more than a million.CPR
CRIT adjunct expressing a criterion/measure/standard Play the game according to the rules.CRIT
CSQ paratactic structure root node - consequential relation He cheated, therefore.CSQ he was fired
DENOM effective root node of an independent nominal clause (which is not parenthetical) Jordan College.DENOM
DIFF adjunct expressing a difference (between two entities, states etc.) He is two centimeters.DIFF taller.
DIR1 directional adjunct - answering the question "where from" He came from Prague.DIR1
DIR2 directional adjunct - answering the question "which way" They are walking through the woods.DIR2
DIR3 directional adjunct - answering the question "where to" He came home.DIR3
DISJ paratactic structure root node - disjunctive relation Either I will go, or.DISJ you will.
DPHR the dependent part of an idiomatic expression kick the bucket.DPHR
EFF argument - Effect He was elected chairman.EFF
EXT adjunct expressing extent He is very.EXT nice.
FPHR part of a foreign-language expression faux.FPHR pas.FPHR
GRAD paratactic structure root node - gradation He not only lied, but.GRAD he also made them a lot of other harm.
HER adjunct expressing inheritance a theory named after the researchers.HER
ID the nominative of identity and explicative genitive Windsor.ID castle; death.ID penalty
INTF A function word as part of a multiword named entity, if it was not labeled as NE. This functor has a different function in Czech, where it is used systematically. It turns out to be redundant in the English part and will probably disappear in the next release. The.INTF Hours
INTT adjunct expressing intention He went shopping.INTT
LOC locative adjunct - answering the question "where" He works in Prague.LOC
MANN adjunct expressing the manner (of doing sth) He speaks aloud.MANN
MAT adnominal argument referring to the content of a container a glass of water.MAT
MEANS adjunct expressing a means (of doing sth) He writes with a pen.MEANS
MOD atomic expression with a modal meaning He works probably.MOD part-time.
NE part of a named entity New York.NE Stock Exchange
OPER paratactic structure root node referring to a mathematical operation or interval from five [from-]to.OPER ten hours
ORIG argument - Origo made from durable plastic.ORIG
PAR effective root node of a parenthetic (verbal or nominal) clause I am coming on December 13th (Friday.PAR)
PARTL effective root node of an independent interjectional clause Hurray.PARTL , we won!
PAT argument - Patient He is cooking lunch.PAT
PREC atomic expression referring to the preceding context And.PREC then he left.
PRED effective root node of an independent verbal clause (which is not parenthetical) Pavel gave.PRED a flower to Martina.
REAS paratactic structure root node - causal relation Scenario 1 reimburses the Pentagon for inflation only .REAS it slopes upward at 4% per year.
REG adjunct expressing a circumstance that the main predication takes into account Considering the weather.REG, it's not possible to plan anything.
RESL adjunct expressing the result/effect of something He is speaking so softly that we can't understand.RESL what he's saying.
RESTR adjunct expressing an exception/restriction Except for you.RESTR, everybody was there.
RHEM atomic expression - rhematizer Only.RHEM Karel left.
RSTR adnominal adjunct modifying its governing noun a big.RSTR house
SM complex prepositional expression in the light.SM of the new information
SUBS adjunct expressing that sb/sth substitutes for sb/sth else Instead of Father.SUBS, our uncle took action.
TFHL temporal adjunct - answering the question "for how long" He came to stay for a month.TFHL
TFRWH temporal adjunct - answering the question "from when" He shifted the negotiations from Saturday.TFRWH to today.
THL temporal adjunct - answering the questions "how long" and "after how long" He managed to do it in a week.THL
THO temporal adjunct - answering the questions "how often" and "how many times" I work on that every day.THO
TOWH temporal adjunct - answering the question "to when" He moved the negotiations from Saturday to today.TOWH
TPAR temporal adjunct - answering the questions "in parallel/simultaneously with what" and "during what time" During our holiday.TWHEN it didn't rain once.
TSIN temporal adjunct - answering the question "since when" He has been living here since 1997.TSIN
TTILL temporal adjunct - answering the question "until when" I will have it done by Friday.TTILL
TWHEN temporal adjunct - answering the question "when" I'll come tomorrow.TWHEN
VOCAT effective root node of an independent vocative clause Hannah.VOCAT, give it to me!