5.5. INTT

Definition of the INTT functor

The INTT functor (intent) is assigned to a free modification expressing intention, purpose, aim of movement (relocation) expressed by the governing verb.

A modification with the INTT functor expresses the intent with which something or somebody is moving or changing location, or with which somebody invites or sends somebody somewhere. This modification is typical for verbs of motion and transfer, e.g. šel se koupat (=he went swimming); vydal se na představení do Národního divadla (=he went to a performance in the National Theatre) ; odcestoval na návštěvu (=he left for a visit), and for verbs with the meanings "to invite " and "to send", e.g. pozval premiéra k dialogu (=lit. he invited the prime minister to a dialogue); poslali ho pro svačinu (=lit. they sent him for a snack). If a verb of motion or transfer is substituted by the verb být (=to_be) the modification with functor INTT can also cooccur with this verb, e.g. byl se koupat (=lit. (he) was - to_swim); byli jsme to obhlídnout (=lit. (we) were - it to_have_(a)_look (at).

NB! INTT modifications are considered exclusively adverbal modifications, i.e. they only modify verbs and to their nominalized forms, e.g. trenér vyztuží obranu Urbanem, přicházejícím na hostování.INTT ze Sparty (=lit. (the) coach will_support defence (by) Urban coming to host from Sparta; cestování za nákupy .INTT (=lit. travelling for shooping). Modifications with the intent meaning modifying non-derived nouns are assigned the AIM functor.

Forms. INTT modifications mostly occur in the infinitival form but prepositional phrases are also used sometimes. INTT modificatins cannot be expressed by a dependent clause; a dependent clause with a corresponding meaning is always assigned the AIM functor.

The basic forms of INTT modifications are:

Figure 7.28. The INTT functor

The INTT functor

Šel nakoupit, aby doplnil zásoby. (=lit. (He) went shopping to replenish (the) stock.)

5.5.1. Borderline cases with the INTT functor

Border with the AIM functor. The INTT functor borders especially on the AIM functor (see Section 5.1, "AIM"). A summary of the differences between these two functors:

  • The INTT functor is a modification never expressed by a clause, it is expressed by a verb in the infinitive or by a prepositional phrase, and it expresses the meaning of intent/purpose when it follows verbs of motion or transfer and when it follows verbs with the meanings "to invite" and "to send".

    Modifications expressed by a dependent clause (esp. with the conjunction aby (=in_order_to) ) that have the meaning of intent/purpose are always assigned the AIM functor even if they occur after verbs of motion or transfer and after verbs with the meanings "to invite" or "to send".


    • Šel tam pomáhat.INTT (=lit.(He) went there to help.)

    • Šel tam, aby jim pomohl.AIM (=lit.(He) went there to help them.)

  • When compared to AIM modifications, a modification with the INTT functor has a closer relation to the governing verb (or to its nominalization). With verbs of motion or migration, or verbs with the meaning "to invite" or "to send", the two types of modification can cooccur. The fact that these are two different modifications, and not two modifications with the same function, is supported by the imposssibility to coordinate them.


    • Šel tam pomáhat.INTT , aby to měli.AIM dříve hotové. (=lit. (He) went there (to) help so_that (they) it would_have sooner ready.)

    • Šel nakoupit.INTT , aby měli co jíst.AIM (=lit. (He) went shopping so_that (they) would_have something to_eat.).

  • Modifications with the INTT functor are considered exclusively adverbal, i.e. they only modify verbs and their nominalized forms. Modifications of intent modifying non-derived nouns are assigned the AIM functor. Compare:

    • cestování za nákupy.INTT (=lit. travelling for shopping)

    • voda k pití.AIM (=lit. water to drink)

!!! This is how the intent modifications are analyzed in PDT. However, it has turned out that the border between the INTT and AIM functors needs to be made more precise, esp. the condition on the identity of the Actors of the two events is to be taken into account. Also the relation between the clausal and non-clausal expression of the intent/purpose needs reconsideration. In the current version of PDT, these two ways of expressing intent/purpose are annotated differently.

Border with the DIR3 functor. INTT modifications also often border on directional modification (the meaning "where to"; DIR3; see Section 4.3, "DIR3"). This competition is determined by the semantics of the verbs of motion or transfer, or verbs with the meaning "to send" or "to invite". These verbs primarily indicate direction; intent modifications (INTT) are only secondary with them. Cf.:

  • Přijel do Prahy.DIR3 (=lit. (He) came to Prague.)

  • Přijel do Prahy.DIR3 na schůzku.INTT s premiérem (=lit. (He) came to Prague on (a) meeting with (the) prime_minister.) .

  • Přijel na schůzku.INTT s premiérem. {#Oblfm. DIR3} (=lit. (He) came on (a) meeting with (the) prime_minister.)

    In the sentence Přijel na schůzku s premiérem. (=lit. (He) came on (a) meeting with (the) prime_minister), the prepositional phrase na schůzku (=lit. on (a) meeting) is assigned the INTT functor and the ellipsis of the DIR3 modification is marked in the tree (because it is an obligatory modification).

For the competition between INTT and DIR3 - from the poit of view of valency - see Section, "Status of the modification expressing "intention" (INTT) after verbs of "motion"".