The functors for expressing manner and its specific variants are a rather diverse group of adjunct functors that express all kinds of inner characteristics of events, i.e. the manner in which the event (state) proceeds/comes about. Manner can be expressed in different ways - by comparison, by specifying the result or instrument used for accomplishing the event, by expressing quantity etc.; these different ways of expressing manner correspond to different (manner) functors.
Modifications with these functors modify verbs (also nominalizations), adjectives and adverbs. However, in some cases, they can also modify non-event nouns (orchestr bez dirigenta.
ACMP). (=an orchestra without a conductor)
Valency. Modifications with the manner functors (i.e. manner and its specific variants) are typically optional. However, there are also verbs subcategorizing for manner modifications (there are usually more alternatives - possibilities how to express manner). See also Section 126.96.36.199.3, "Competing locative/directional adjuncts (of different types)".
List of the functors for expressing manner and its specific variants