### 16.2. Operators

Operators are defined as (linking) expressions for the expression of mathematical operations and intervals. In terms of their form they are both subordinating and co-ordinating expressions. Operators comprise in particular:

• signs for mathematical operations (+) and also their lexical forms (plus (=plus)).

• the dash as a punctuation mark or the comma for the expression of an interval.

• the expression až (=until) expressing an interval.

• a combination of prepositions expressing an interval. For example: od - přes -do (=from - through -to), od - po (=from - to), počínaje - konče (=beginning - ending).

The rules for the annotation of mathematical operations and intervals are described in Section 11, "Mathematical operations and intervals".

An operator is represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a separate node only in cases where mathematical operations or intervals are represented as a paratactic structure. The node representing an operator then stands for the root node of this paratactic structure (`functor`=`OPER`).

T-lemma. The t-lemma of the node representing the operator of the mathematical operation is the sign of the relevant mathematical operation, either in the form of the t-lemma substitute (`#Colon` for the colon, `#Slash` for the slash) or (in a case where a t-lemma substitute has not been provided for a given sign) in the form in which it occurs in the text: thus either as a symbol (for example: +), or as a word (for example: plus (=plus)).

In the t-lemma of the node for the operator of the interval realised by a combination of prepositional phrases the respective prepositions are joined by an underscore (od_přes_do (=from_through_to); see also the section on multi-word t-lemmas Section 3, "T-lemmas of multi-word (complex) lexical units"). Individual combinations of prepositions expressing an interval are realised at surface level by various formal variants (od - do (=from - to), od - po (=from - to), od - k (=from - towards)). For the respective formal variants one representative variant is always selected, recorded as the t-lemma of the node the operator represents in the tectogrammatical tree (od_do (=from - to)).

The expression "". The expression až (=until) has a dual function in the expression of mathematical operations and intervals:

• an operator.

The expression až (=until) is an operator with the meaning of an interval in examples such as:

pět .`OPER` deset bodů (=five to ten points)

období 1938 .`OPER` 1954 (=the period from 1938 till 1954)

If the expression až (=until) is an operator, it is represented by a node which is the root node of the paratactic structure and has the functor `OPER` (`t_lemma`=).

• an expression modifying an operator.

The expression až (=until) is a conjunction (operator) modifier which emphasises the second (final) boundary of the interval in cases where the interval is realised by a combination of prepositional phrases.

If the expression až (=till) is a conjunction (operator) modifier it is represented by a node which is a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure and has the functor `CM` (`t_lemma`=). The value `0` is entered in the attribute `is_member`.

The rule is that although this node is a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure and in the attribute `is_member` it has the value `0`, it is not a shared modifier of the conjuncts and it does not modify the mother of the root node of the paratactic structure.

Example:

od pěti .`CM` do deseti bodů (=from five to ten points)

Cf:

• 1 plus 1 (=1 plus 1)

The operátor will be represented by a node with the t-lemma plus.

• byt 1+1 (=lit. appartment 1+1)

The operator will be represented by the node + (a t-lemma substitute has not been introduced for the mathematical addition sign).

• Utkání skončilo 2 : 0 (=The match ended 2:0).

The operator will be represented by a node with the t-lemma `#Colon` (the node representing the colon (with whatever meaning) has the t-lemma substitute `#Colon`; see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes").

• od deseti do osmdesáti procent (=from ten to eighty percent)

Prepositional operators will be represented by a single node with the representative t-lemma od_do.

• počínaje složitou dopravou na Strahov, přeplněným parkovištěm, .`CM` po dlouhé fronty na lístky (=starting with the complicated travel to Strahov, the overflowing car park and then the long queues for tickets.)

Prepositional operators will be represented by one node with the representative t-lemma od_do. The expression až (=till) will be represented as a conjunction (operator) modifier.

• od notebooků přes stolní modely .`CM` po víceprocesorové servery (=from notebooks to desktop models to multi-processor servers)

Prepositional operators will be represented by one node with the representative t-lemma od_přes_do. The expression až (=till) will be represented as a conjunction (operator) modifier.