### 16.1. Co-ordinating connectives

For each connective it is determined, on the basis of formal and semantic criteria, whether it is a co-ordinating or a subordinating connective.

Co-ordinating conjunctions are the core of co-ordinating connectives.

The semantics of conjunctions is extremely abstract, because conjunctions frequently combine with other expressions, particularly adverbs and particles. This concretises and modifies the sematics of conjunctions. Combinations of co-ordinating conjunctions with other words give rise to complex co-ordinating connectives (a nebo také (=or also)). Complex co-ordinating connectives are therefore interpreted as an amalgamation of two types of expression:

• one or more conjunctions. Conjunctions include punctuation (particularly the comma) if it links clauses independently or combines with an expression other than a conjunction.

• modifying expressions (conjunction modifiers), i.e. non-conjunctions, most frequently particles and adverbs, which help to express the semantic specification of a co-ordinating or appositional relation between clauses or parts of them.

A co-ordinating connective usually contains at least one conjunction. Conjunction modifiers are not always found in a co-ordinating connective, but more than one conjunction modifier is frequently present.

When representing co-ordinating connectives in the tectogrammatical tree the conjunction must be distinguished from the conjunction modifier in the co-ordinating connective. A complex co-ordinating connective is represented by at least two nodes: a node for the conjunction and a node for the conjunction modifier. Cf.:

• Dostavil se jediný člověk, a navíc nespecialista. (=Only one person turned up, a layman to boot.)

The co-ordinating connective comprises the conjunction a (=and) and the conjunction modifier navíc (=to boot). This complex connective is represented in the tectogrammatical tree by two nodes: the node representing the conjunction a (=and) represents the root node of the co-ordinating structure (on this see also Section 16.1.1, "Co-ordinating conjunctions"); the node representing the conjunction modifier navíc (=to boot) is a direct daughter node of the root node of the co-ordinating structure and it is assigned the functor `CM` (on this see also Section 16.1.2, "Conjunction modifiers"). Cf. Fig. 8.287.

!!! Between the co-ordinating conjunctions, between conjunction modifiers and between entire complex co-ordinating connectives relationships of synonymy are found. In PDT, synonymy between co-ordinating conjunctions has so far been resolved only to a very limited extent (by means of a representative t-lemma; see Section 16.1.1, "Co-ordinating conjunctions") . Conjunction modifiers are interpreted as a component of the co-ordinating connective, and, merely for reasons of unresolved synonymy in co-ordinating expressions, they are currently represented by independent nodes in the tectogrammatical tree.

Functions of co-ordinating connectives. In co-ordinating connectives two functions are distinguished:

1. the co-ordinating connective links two or more modifications or clauses in a relationship of co-ordination or apposition.

Example:

S hojící se sliznicí a s růstem obnovujících se střevních klků vlivem bezlepkové diety se zlepšuje i funkční schopnost sliznice a pacient může přijímat mléko a sladit řepným cukrem. (=As the mucous membrane recovers and as the recovering villi in the intestine grow under the gluten-free diet, the functionality of the mucous membrane also improves and the patient can take milk and beet sugar.)

2. a co-ordinating connective indicates that the clause relates to a preceding context.

Example:

(Velmi mírný růst spotřebitelských cen, jaký je dnes for example v Německu, není výsledkem politické vůle, nýbrž zdravě fungujících podniků i celé ekonomiky.) (=(A very mild growth of consumer prices, such as found today for example in Germany, is not a result of political will, but of a healthy performance of companies and of the economy as a whole.)) A to zatím není náš případ. (=And that is not the case with us so far.)

#### 16.1.1. Co-ordinating conjunctions

The core of (complex) co-ordinating connectives is formed by co-ordinating conjunctions. A combination of conjunctions gives rise to conjunction pairs (buď - nebo (=either - or)) and complex conjunctions (a nebo (=or)).

A co-ordinating conjunction (a simple conjunction, a complex conjunction and conjunction pairs) is always represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a single node. According to the function of the co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction is a component) the node representing the conjunction is:

• the root node of the paratactic structure (`nodetype`=`coap`).

The root node of a paratactic structure is the node representing the conjunction where the co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction is a component) links two (or more) modifications or clauses in a relationship of co-ordination or apposition.

The root node of the paratactic structure is always allocated one of the functors describing the semantic nature of the paratactic connection (see Section 12, "Functors expressing the relations between the members of paratactic structures").

• an atomic node with the functor `PREC` (`nodetype`=`atom`).

An atomic node with the functor `PREC` (dependent on the effective root node of the attached clause) is a node representing a conjunction where the co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction is a component) indicates that the clause relates to a preceding context (see also Section 7.4, "PREC").

Representative t-lemma. The respective co-ordinating conjunctions are realised at surface level in certain cases by various formal variants (buď nebo (=either or), buďto nebo (=either or)). One representative variant is always selected for these different formal variants, and it is entered as the t-lemma of the node representing the conjunction in the tectogrammatical tree. In the case of a complex conjunction or of conjunction pairs, the respective components of the conjunction are linked in the t-lemma by an underscore character (buď_nebo (=either_or); see also the section on multi-word t-lemmas -Section 3, "T-lemmas of multi-word (complex) lexical units").

Cf:

• Mezi smysly patří zrak a sluch a hmat a čich. (=The senses include sight and hearing and touch and smell.)

Repetition of the conjunctions a - a - a (=and - and - and) is represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a node with the t-lemma a.

• Ve Slavii jsou buďto mladí hráči, anebo ti, kteří dostávají příležitost sporadicky. (In Slavia there are either young players or those who get the opportunity occasionally.)

The conjunction pairs buďto - anebo (=either - or) are represented in the tectogrammatical tree by the t-lemma buď_nebo (=either_or).

The rule is that the representative conjunction must be capable of performing all the functions (functors) of the respective variants of the conjunction it represents. The reverse does not necessarily apply. A conjunction represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a t-lemma does not necessarily possess all the meanings of its representative conjunction. For example the conjunction a (=and) (having the meanings of the functors `CONJ`, `ADVS`, `GRAD`, `OPER` etc.) is representative of the repeated conjunction a - a (=and - and), which possesses only one of its meanings - `CONJ`.

In this phase of the annotation conjunctions are brought together under one representative t-lemma, primarily according to the formal similarity (of the expression). The conjunctions ale (=but) and však (=however), formally distinct (as expressions), are not brought together under a single representative t-lemma, even though they have the same meaning.

A co-ordinating conjunction vs. a conjunction modifier. An expression is either a conjunction or a (conjunction) modifier. Only the two expressions i (=and also / even) and ani (=nor / neither) may have the property of a conjunction and also of a conjunction modifier. They are conjunction modifiers when they follow another conjunction in a sentence. Cf.:

• tatínek i maminka (=daddy and mummy)

The expression i (=and also) is a conjunction; the node representing this expression is represented in the tectogrammatical tree as the root node of the paratactic structure and has the functor `CONJ`.

• tatínek a i maminka (=daddy and mummy as well)

The expression i (=and also) is a conjunction modifier; the node representing this expression will be represented in the tectogrammatical tree as a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic construction (the node for the conjunction a (=and)) will have the functor `CM`.

• není tu tatínek ani maminka (=neither daddy nor mummy is here)

The expression ani (=nor / neither) is a conjunction; the node representing this expression is represented in the tectogrammatical tree as the root node of the paratactic structure and has the functor `CONJ`.

• není tu tatínek a ani maminka (=neither daddy nor mummy is here)

The expression ani (=nor / neither) is a conjunction modifier; the node representing this expression will be represented in the tectogrammatical tree as the direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure (the node for the conjunction a (=and)) will have the functor `CM`.

Punctuation as a co-ordinating conjunction. Punctuation (particularly the comma) is included under co-ordinating conjunctions if the clauses are linked asyndetically, or if they combine only with the conjunction modifier. Cf.:

• Byl tu premiér, předsedové stran, někteří ministři. (=The prime minister was here, the party chairmen, certain ministers.)

The node representing the comma will be represented as the root node of the paratactic structure (`t_lemma`=`#Comma`).

• Byl tu premiér, předsedové stran, dále někteří ministři. (=The prime minister was here, the party chairmen, additionally certain ministers.)

The node representing the comma will be represented as the root node of the paratactic structure (`t_lemma`=`#Comma`). The node representing the conjunction modifier dále (=additionally) will be represented as an atomic node with the functor `CM`, which will be a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure.

• Neměl čas, a proto nepřišel. (=He did not have time and that is why he did not come.)

The node representing the conjunction a (=and) will be represented as the root node of the paratactic structure. The node representing the conjunction modifier proto (=for that reason) will be represented as an atomic node with the functor `CM`, which will be a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure.

• Neměl čas, proto nepřišel. (=He did not have time and that is why he did not come.)

The node representing the comma (`t_lemma`=`#Comma`) will be represented as the root node of the paratactic structure. The node representing the conjunction modifier proto (=for that reason) will be represented as an atomic node with the functor `CM`, which will be a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure.

"Non-co-ordinating" connectives. Certain "non-co-ordinating" connectives are also loosely included with the co-ordinating conjunctions:

• expressions borrowed from foreign languages: kontra (=contra), versus (=versus), alias (=alias), de facto (=de facto) etc.,

• phrases which have become set expressions that may now be treated as a means of expressing, in particular, an appositional relationship : to jest (=that is), to znamená (=that means) etc.

#### 16.1.2. Conjunction modifiers

By a conjunction modifier is meant a non-conjunction word, most frequently a particle or an adverb helping to specify (together with a co-ordinating a conjunction) the semantics of a co-ordinating or appositional relation between the clauses or their components. A conjunction modifier is treated as a component of a complex co-ordinating connective.

Each conjunction modifier is represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a separate node. According to the function of a co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction modifier is a component) the node representing the conjunction modifier is:

• an atomic node with the functor `CM` (`nodetype`=`atom`).

An atomic node with the functor `CM`, which is always a direct daughter node of the root node of a paratactic structure, is a node representing a conjunction modifier where the co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction modifier is a component) links two (or more) modifications or clauses in a relationship of co-ordination or apposition.

At the node for the conjunction modifier the value `0` is entered in the attribute `is_member`.

The rule is that although this node is a direct daughter of the root node of a paratactic structure and in the attribute `is_member` it has the value `0`, it is not a shared modifier of the terminal members of the paratactic structure, nor does it modify the mother of the root node of the paratactic structure. Here we have a node representing an expression which is a component of the co-ordinating connective.

• an atomic node with the functor `PREC` (`nodetype`=`atom`).

An atomic node with the functor `PREC` (dependent on the effective root node of the attached clause) is a node representing the conjunction modifier where the co-ordinating connective (of which the conjunction modifier is a component) indicates that the clause relates to a preceding context (see also Section 7.4, "PREC").

Criteria for determining conjunction modifiers. There are many conjunction modifiers found in complex co-ordinating connectives, and they can be combined in various ways. Most particles and adverbs with the primary function of rhematizers, various structural particles, certain adverbs with a primary adverbial function and other expressions can occur as components of co-ordinating connectives.

Only a limited number of expressions occur primarily as components of complex co-ordinating connectives. These are structural and linking particles (for example: tedy (=thus), dále (=further / also)). Their function is to link an utterance to the preceding context. Additionally, they can be carriers of a meaning (for example consequential), which would be lost if they were detached. Thus typical components of connectives such as dokonce (=even), jednak (=on the one hand), tudíž (=consequently) are also always represented as conjunction modifiers.

The majority of expressions functioning as conjunction modifiers are however homonyms; in another construction the same expressions can fulfil other functions, particularly the function of rhematizers.

The chief criterion for the classification of a particular expression as a conjunction modifier is that only those expressions which do not participate in the sentence structure and are not rhematizers in the sentence form components of a co-ordinating connective. The rule is then that :

• expressions with the meaning of the functor `MOD`, `ATT` or also `EXT` (similar to conjunction modifiers) do not participate in complex co-ordinating connectives (for example: asi (=perhaps), možná (=possibly), snad (=hopefully), prý (=apparently / they_say_that), bohužel (=unfortunately), skoro (=nearly), téměř (=almost)), which always form part of the sentence structure.

If these expressions occur after a conjunction between paratactically connected components, it is a case either of clausal co-ordination, where the node representing the given expression is dependent on a newly established node for the predicate (see also Section 6.1.2, "Parataxis of sentence parts, parataxis of clauses and mixed parataxis"), or modification of one of the conjuncts. Cf:

• Přišel Karel a snad i Pavel. (=Charles came, and hopefully Paul as well.)

= Přišel Karel a snad.`MOD` {přijít (=to come).`PRED`} i Pavel. (=Charles came, and hopefully Paul as well.)

The modification snad (=hopefully) modifies the elided predicate přijít (=to come).

• Přišel Karel a bohužel i Pavel. (=Charles came, and unfortunately Paul as well.)

= Přišel Karel a bohužel.`ATT` {přijít (=to come).`PRED`} i Pavel. (=Charles came, and unfortunately Paul as well.)

The modification bohužel (=unfortunately) modifies the elided predicate přijít (=to come).

• Přišel unavený a téměř zoufalý (=He arrived tired and almost in despair)

= Přišel unavený a téměř.`EXT` zoufalý. (=He arrived tired and almost in despair)

The modification téměř (=almost) modifies the adjective zoufalý (=desperate).

• Expressions having a rhematizing function (identical to conjunction modifiers) do not form part of co-ordinating connectives. The rule for these homonyms is that:

• if in a case of constituent co-ordination, functioning in the sentence structure as a unit (thus having the same properties in terms of functional sentence perspective), expressions having potential rhematizing function occur after a conjunction, between the co-ordinated components, these expressions are classified as conjunction modifiers. Cf:

• Podej mi i.`RHEM` sešit a tužku. (=Hand me a notebook and pencil as well.)

The particle i (=also) rhematizes the entire co-ordination. The node representing this rhematizer will be represented as the left sister of the root node of the paratactic structure.

• Podej mi sešit a i.`CM` tužku. (=Hand me a notebook and pencil as well.)

The particle i (=also) does not have a rhematizing function; it is therefore classified as a conjunction modifier. The node representing this expression has the functor `CM` and is a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure which is the node representing the conjunction a (=and).

• in clausal co-ordination the emphatic particle may have a rhematizing function, or it may not; in the latter case it is classified as a component of the co-ordinating connective. Cf:

• Dnes přišel Karel, ale včera jsem zahlédl také.`RHEM` Jirku. (Today Charles came, but yesterday I caught sight of George as well.)

The particle také (=also) has a rhematizing function, signalling the focus proper Jirka (=George). The node representing this rhematizer will be represented as a left sister of the node representing the noun Jirka (=George).

• Nejenže naše firma staví domy, ale budujeme také.`CM` na sídlištích dětská hřiště. (=Not only is our company building houses, but we are also setting up children's playgrounds on the housing estates.)

The particle také (=also) does not have a rhematizing function; the shifting of the particle (ale také.`CM` budujeme na sídlištích dětská hřiště (=we are setting up children's playgrounds on the housing estates) ) does not alter the meaning, so this is not a case of a rhematizer; the particle is therefore classified as a conjunction modifier. The node representing this particle has the functor `CM` and it is a direct daughter node of the root node of the paratactic structure which is the node representing the conjunction ale (=but).

The effect of the conjunction modifier on the meaning of the co-ordinating conjunction. Conjunction modifiers in the co-ordinating connective have essentially a dual effect on the meaning of the co-ordinating conjunction, and thus that of the entire paratactic connection:

• they only render the meaning of the basic conjunction more precise, giving it more emphasis.

The functor describing the meaning of the paratactic connection (at the root node of the paratactic structure) is the same, whether or not a conjunction modifier is present.

Cf:

• Dostal kolo a.`CONJ` počítač. (=He got a bicycle and a computer.)

• Dostal kolo a.`CONJ` také.`CM` počítač. (=He got a bicycle and a computer.)

• they cause a shift in the meaning (by contrast with that carried by the basic conjunction on its own).

The functor describing the meaning of the paratactic connection (at the root node of the paratactic structure) changes if a conjunction modifier is present.

Cf:

• Dostal kolo a.`CONJ` počítač. (=He got a bicycle and a computer.)

• Dostal kolo a.`GRAD` dokonce.`CM` počítač. (=He got a bicycle and even a computer.)

Types of conjunction modifiers. In respect of the effect on the meaning of the paratactic connection (and for purposes of annotation) conjunction modifiers are divided into the following groups:

• contextualisers.

Contextualisers are conjunction modifiers which can be attached to any co-ordinating connective without any fundamental change in the meaning of the paratactic connection (the functor at the root node of the paratactic structure).

Contextualisers include, for example, the expressions:

 i (=also) také (=also) též (=also) zároveň (=at the same time / along with) rovněž (=likewise) ještě (=as well)
• restrictors.

Restrictors are usually particles whose lexical meaning involves closer, narrower definition of a set. Restrictors give to a paratactic connection one of the meanings of the following functors: `ADVS`, `GRAD`, `CONFR`, `DISJ` (see Section 12.1, "Functors for coordination").

Restrictors comprise for example the expressions:

 alespoň (=at least) hlavně (=mainly) jenom (=only) pouze (=only) třeba (=perhaps) zejména (=particularly)
• negating modifiers.

Negation taking the form of a morpheme and a particle can also be a component of a co-ordinating connective. If a negating modifier is a component of a co-ordinating connective, the root node of the paratactic structure carries one of the following functors: `ADVS`, `GRAD`, `CONFR` (see Section 12.1, "Functors for coordination").

Negating modifiers include the expressions:

 ne (=no / not) nikoli/v (=no / by no means) ani (=nor / neither) the morpheme ne- (=non- / un-) in verbs (represented in the tectogrammatical tree by a node with the t-lemma substitute `#Neg`)

On negating modifiers see Section 13.3, "Negating expressions as conjunction modifiers".

• other modifiers.

A number of further expressions also form components of connectives. It is a characteristic of most of them that they add to the paratactic connection the typical meaning of only one of the functors for co-ordination. Thus they may be further sub-categorised on the basis of the meaning they are typically associated with:

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `ADVS`.

For example: přece (=after all), nýbrž (=but rather), zato (=on the other hand).

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `CONFR`.

For example: naopak (=on the contrary).

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `CONJ`.

For example: stejně (=in any case), podobně (=similarly).

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `CSQ`.

For example: proto (=therefore), tudíž (=consequently).

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `DISJ`.

For example: případně (=possibly), popřípadě (=as the case may be), eventuálně (=possibly).

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `GRAD`.

• conjunction modifiers typical for the meaning `APPS`.
The sub-categories are not definitive, however. It is not the case, for example, that an expression assigned to a group of expressions typical for the meaning `CONJ` may not nevertheless occur in a particular sentence as a component of a co-ordinating connective with the meaning of a different functor for co-ordination.