### 13.2. Negating and affirmative expressions as non-verbal clauses

The negating and affirmative particles (ano (=yes), ne (=no / not), nikoli/v (=no / by no means) ) may also have an independent declarative function; they may form a non-verbal clause, in two ways:

• they express independently a positive or a negative meaning.

A self-standing negating or affirmative particle is represented as a non-verbal interjectional clause - the effective root of the clause (the node representing the particle) has the functor `PARTL`.

Examples:

(Přijdete?) (=(Will you come?)) Ano.`PARTL` (=Yes) Fig. 8.280

(Přijdete?) (=(Will you come?)) Nikoliv.`PARTL` (=Certainly not / No)

• they emphasise the positive or negative meaning of the expressed verb and of the entire following verbal clause (the verbal clause is also syntactically (and semantically) complete without this particle).

If the negating or affirmative particle is not part of the syntactic structure and forms an independent non-verbal clause, this particle is represented as a node with the functor `PARTL`, which is a direct daughter node of the root of the verb clause (according to the rules in Section 4, "Verbal and non-verbal clauses").

Examples:

(Přijdete?) (=(Will you come?)) Ano.`PARTL` , přijdeme (=Yes, we will come). Fig. 8.281

(Přijdete?) (=(Will you come?)) Ne.`PARTL` , nepřijdeme (=No, we will not come).

Ano.`PARTL` , to uděláme (=Yes, we will do it).

Ne.`PARTL` , to je naprostý nesmysl (=No, that is utter nonsense).

(Přijdeš?) (=(Will you come?)) Nikoliv.`PARTL` , tam mě nikdo nedostane (=No, nobody will get me there).

NB! As a node with the functor `PARTL`, which is a direct daughter node of the root of the verbal clause, cases are also represented where the negating or affirmative particle represents direct speech. On this see also Section 3, "Direct speech".

Examples:

Odpověděl: " Nikoliv.`PARTL` ." { `#EmpVerb`.`EFF`} (=He replied: No) Fig. 8.282

Řekl: ano.`PARTL` {`#EmpVerb`.`EFF`} (=He said: Yes)

On the borderline between expressions used in a metalinguistic sense and direct speech see Section 3.3, "Borderline cases between direct speech and meta-usage".

Rules for annotation of verbal and non-verbal clauses see Section 4, "Verbal and non-verbal clauses".