3.3. Borderline cases between direct speech and meta-usage

Some nouns (for example: slovo (=word), otázka (=question), výrok (=statement/declaration) and others) can introduce both direct speech (see Section 3.1.2, "Direct speech as modification of a noun"), and so-called meta-usage of a word or phrase (see Section 8.3, "Expressions used metalinguistically"). Cf.:

The following are considered nouns introducing meta-usage, but not direct speech: nápis (=inscription), text (=text), výraz (=expression). For example: Billboard s nápisem "Vpřed.ID" (=A hoarding with the inscription "Forwards").

An expression used metalinguistically (words or entire phrases, and clauses) is represented as an identifying structure (see Section 8.1.3, "Identification structure"). By contrast, direct speech is never represented as an identifying structure.

Boundaries with the expressions "ano", "ne". Choices between meta-usage and direct speech are also made in the case of the expressions of negation and affirmation ano (=yes) and ne (=no). A distinction is made between cases where a statement is being made indicating agreement or disagreement (direct speech) and cases where the expressions ano (=yes) and ne (=no) are being discussed as words or concepts (meta-usage). Cf.:

Direct speech and meta-usage indicated graphically (by means of quotation marks) are distinguished by the distinct values (dsp and meta) in the attribute quot/type (see Section 19.1, "Text within quotation marks").