### 11.2. Intervals

Intervals are constructions delimiting the boundaries (span, interval) of a temporal, spatial, numerical segment (range) but also other kinds of intervals. For example:

od dvou do pěti let (=from two to five years)

od zeleniny po drogerii (=from greengrocer's to drugstores)

Intervals are analyzed in two different ways:

#### 11.2.1. Temporal intervals analyzed by means of temporal functors

The following constructions are analyzed by means of temporal functors (esp. `TSIN` and `TTILL`, but also `TWHEN`; see Section 3, "Temporal functors") and subfunctors (see Section 13.1, "Subfunctors"):

• constructions with the meaning: "from - to".

Examples:

Sněžilo od Vánoc.`TSIN` do Velikonoc.`TTILL` (=It snowed from Christmas to Easter) Fig. 8.203

Konalo se to od 9.`TSIN` do 10 hodin.`TTILL` (=It took place from 9 until 10 o'clock) Fig. 8.204

Výsledky byly stále stejné, počínaje 5. červnem.`TSIN` do 10. června.`TTILL` (=The results were the same starting on 5 june and ending on 10 June) Fig. 8.205

Pracoval od rána.`TSIN` po tu chvíli.`TTILL` (=He worked since the morning until that moment)

Pracoval na tom od 5. { června.`TSIN`} do 10. června.`TTILL` (=He worked on that from 5 June until 10 June)

• constructions with the meaning "in the time between".

Examples:

Konalo se to mezi 5. { červnem.`TWHEN` [`subfunctor`=`betw`]} a 10. červnem.`TWHEN` [`subfunctor`=`betw`] (=It took place between 5 June and 10 June) Fig. 8.206

Stalo se to mezi pondělkem.`TWHEN` [`subfunctor`=`betw`] a středou.`TWHEN` [`subfunctor`=`betw`] (=It happened between Monday and Wednesday)

#### 11.2.2. Spatial intervals analyzed by means of locative/directional functors

The following constructions are analyzed by means of appropriate locative/directional functors (esp. `DIR1` and `DI3`, but also `DIR2` and `LOC`; see Section 4, "Locative and directional functors") and subfunctors (see Section 13.1, "Subfunctors"):

• constructions with the meaning "where from - which way - where to".

Examples:

Znám to od Aše.`DIR1` přes Prahu.`DIR2` po Brno.`DIR3` (=lit. (I) know it from Aš through Praha to Brno) Fig. 8.207

Cesta vedla od Aše.`DIR1` přes Prahu.`DIR2` do Brna.`DIR3` (=The journey went from Aš through/via Praha to Brno)

• constructions with the meaning "in the area between".

Example:

Dálnice vede mezi Prahou.`LOC` [`subfunctor`=`betw`] a Brnem.`LOC` [`subfunctor`=`betw`] (=The highway goes between Praha and Brno) Fig. 8.208

#### 11.2.3. Intervals analyzed as a paratactic structure

Temporal and spatial intervals that cannot be analyzed by means of appropriate temporal and locative/directional functors - because the interval meaning would be lost - and all other constructions with the interval meaning (with no temporal or spatial meaning) are represented as paratactic structures with the `OPER` functor assigned to the root of the structure. The root of such a paratactic structure is the node representing the given operator (for more on operators, see Section 16.2, "Operators").

The nodes representing the expressions delimiting the interval (i.e.the operands) are the terminal members of the paratactic structure. The value of their `is_member` attribute is `1`. Nodes that are neither operands of a mathematical operation nor delimit an interval are assigned the `0` value in their `is_member` attribute (see also Table 6.3, "Values of the `is_member` attribute").

The functors of the operands correspond to the position of the interval in the given sentence and they usually have the same values.

The following types of constructions are analyzed as having the "interval" meaning (i.e. these are represented by paratactic structures):

• temporal intervals that cannot be analyzed by means of temporal functors without losing the interval interpretation.

Such temporal intervals are mostly expressed by means of a dash or .

Examples:

V období 1995 až 1999 jsem studoval na gymnáziu. (=In the period 1995 to 1999 I studied at high school) Fig. 8.209

Konalo se to 4. - 9. června. (=It took part 4 - 9 June)

zprávy (pondělí - pátek) (=news (Monday - Friday))

• spatial intervals that cannot be analyzed by means of locative/directional functors without losing the interval interpretation.

These spatial intervals are mostly expressed by means of a dash or .

Examples:

Na trase Praha - Brno došlo k nehodě. (=There was an accident on the route Praha - Brno) Fig. 8.210

Brno až Praha (=Brno - Praha)

• quantitative intervals.

Examples:

trest od tří do pěti let (=sentence from three to five years) Fig. 8.211

Nájem se o dvě, tři stovky zvýší. (=The rent will go up by two, three thousand) Fig. 8.212

Přijedou na čtyři, pět, šest dní. (=They are coming for four, five, six weeks)

Přinesl 5 až 10 knih. (=He brought (from) five to ten books)

Přišlo tam 100 až 200 členů. (100 - 200 members came there)

od 10 do 20 žáků (=from 10 to 20 pupils)

mezi 10 a 20 žáky (=between 10 and 20 pupils)

10 - 20 žáků (=10 - 20 pupils)

vklad na čtrnáct dnů až jeden rok (=lit. deposit for fourteen days up_to one year)

• intervals with the meaning of a "scale".

Examples:

Sledovali to všichni, od dětí přes mládež až po dospělé. (=Everybody watched it, from children and youth to adults) Fig. 8.213

od hlavních bodů do nejmenších detailů (=from the main points to the tiniest details)

od hlavních bodů přes příklady do nejmenších detailů (=from the main points to the examples and tiniest details)

od hlavních bodů po nejmenší detaily (=from the main points to the tiniest details)

Mimoevropskou rytmiku najdeme v řadě skladeb počínaje úvodním Come talk to me přes Love to be loved až po závěrečný Secret word. (=Non-European rhythms can be found in a number of pieces, from Come talk to me to Love to be loved and the final Secret word)

• list of items in which the order is relevant.