12. Ellipsis

The cases when the governing or dependent part of a modification is not present in the surface structure of the sentence but when it is, however, present in the meaning of the sentence are regarded as cases of ellipsis.

Types of ellipsis. We distinguish several types of ellipses in the tectogrammatical annotation. On the most general level, the following types of ellipsis are distinguished:

The following sections describe individual cases of ellipsis, depending on what kind of position is omitted. These are:

The textual and grammatical ellipsis are distinguished for each type separately. A separate subsection is devoted to ellipsis (of dependent expressions) in paratactic structures, which forms a special case mainly due to the possibility of the coordinated expressions to have a single (shared) modifier (see Section 12.3, "Ellipsis and the principle of shared modification in paratactic structures").

Representing ellipsis in the tectogrammatical trees. There are the following ways to represent ellipsis: