5.3. The person grammateme

The basic values of the person grammateme are presented in Table 5.4, "Values of the person grammateme".

Table 5.4. Values of the person grammateme


first person (speaker)


second person (hearer)


third person (what is talked about)

This grammateme is relevant for pronouns that may refer to an object of communication (third person) as well as to the speaker or hearer (first and second person); these are the following pronouns:

  1. definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns (sempos = n.pron.def.pers; see Section 6.1.3, "Definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns"),

  2. indefinite pronominal nouns (sempos = n.pron.indef; see Section 6.1.4, "Indefinite pronominal semantic nouns").

The person grammateme of definite personal pronominal semantic nouns. The first subgroup of pronominal nouns (a) consists of the items with a single t-lemma: #PersPron (this t-lemma represents all personal and possessive pronouns, including the reflexives, e.g.: já, oni, tvůj, se, svůj (=I, they, your, self, self's)).

For example: a node with the #PersPron t-lemma representing the pronoun já (=I) has the value 1 in its person grammateme; if the node represents the pronoun tvůj (=your), the value of its person grammateme is 2 (just like with a node representing the pronoun vy (=you)); nodes representing the pronouns on (=he) or oni (=they) have the value 3.


už jdu. [person=1] (=I am coming)

Tvůj názor nesdílím. [person=2] (=I don't share your view)

Vy jste se už přihlásili. [person=2] (=You have already registered.pl)

Vy jste se už přihlásil. [person=2] (=You have already registered.sg)

Oni se ještě nepřihlásili. [person=3] (=They haven't registered yet)

Those nodes with the #PersPron t-lemma that represent the reflexives (se, si, svůj) have the inher value in their person attribute (the value of the grammateme is inherited from the coreferred node).

For more details, see Section 6.1.3, "Definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns".

The person grammateme of indefinite pronominal semantic nouns. Nodes of the other subgroup of pronominal nouns (b) have usually the value 3 in their person grammateme. The values 1 and 2 are assigned in those cases when the semantic noun is the subject of a predicate with the first or second person agreement morphology. For example:

Zachraň se, kdo můžeš. [person=2] (=lit. Save yourself who can.2.sg)

Verše, které kdekdo známe. [person=1] (=Poems which everybody/whoever know.1.pl)

For more details, see Section 6.1.4, "Indefinite pronominal semantic nouns".