Due to the way syntactic and lexical derivatives are represented, it often happens that a node's t-lemma differs from its m-lemma.
Complex nodes are divided into four basic groups (according to their t-lemmas) which are further subdivided. These four basic groups are called semantic parts of speech. Semantic parts of speech are categories of the tectogrammatical level and correspond to the basic onomasiological categories: substances, properties, circumstances.and events. They are:
The information regarding the semantic part-of-speech character of a complex node is encoded in its
sempos attribute. See also Section 3.1, "The
Semantic parts of speech do not quite correspond to the "traditional" parts of speech (see Section 2.1, "Relation between the semantic and traditional parts of speech").
Traditional parts of speech. In Czech, ten traditional parts of speech are distinguished: nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles and interjections. To which traditional part of speech a word belongs is determined by its morphological, syntactic and semantic characteristics (by the characteristics of its m-lemma). The information regarding the (traditional) part-of-speech characteristics of a word (its m-lemma) is carried by its morphological tag. To explain the relation between the semantic parts of speech and the traditional parts of speech (see Section 2.1, "Relation between the semantic and traditional parts of speech") the term syntactic parts of speech will be used as well.
Syntactic parts of speech. The term syntactic part of speech refers to the role of a word in the sentence. The fact that a word belongs to a syntactic part-of-speech is not encoded in any attribute of the word; the term is used exclusively to make the explanation of the difference between the semantic and traditional parts of speech easier. Four syntactic parts of speech are distinguished:
Syntactic nouns are words that modify verbs and usually express such morphological categories as gender, number and case. They mostly play the role of the subject or an object. Moreover, syntactic nouns involve words with the function of a predicative complement or the nominal part of a (verbonominal) predicate (if they are not dependent on another noun w.r.t. the value of their morphological categories) and words in the position of a non-agreeing attribute.
Syntactic adjectives are words that modify nouns and are dependent on them w.r.t. the value of their morphological categories (mostly they play the role of an agreeing attribute). Further, syntactic adjectives involve words in the position of the nominal part of a predicate or in the position of a predicative complement - if the value of their morphological categories depends on the morphological categories of another noun in the sentence (which is usually either the subject or an object).
Note on terminology: when referring to the semantic parts of speech, the attribute "semantic" will always be used (i.e.: "semantic nouns", "semantic adjectives"), when referring to the traditional parts of speech, the attribute "traditional" will not always be used (i.e.: "nouns", "traditional nouns" etc.).