As for the nodes representing words that are present at the surface level, their t-lemma is usually identical to their m-lemma.
However, some words have a special t-lemma, which has no counterpart among morphological lemmas, (the so called t-lemma substitute, see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes"; cf. a), b) and j) in the list), or they have a t-lemma that corresponds to the m-lemma of a different word (cf. c) through i) in the list), or a multi-word t-lemma that corresponds to two (or more) m-lemmas (cf. k) in the list). In still other cases, the t-lemma corresponds to the surface form of a given word (cf. l) in the list). Paratactic structure root nodes have so called representative (i.e. typical) t-lemmas (cf. m) in the list).
The relevant cases are the following:
personal pronouns (including the reflexive si and se) have the t-lemma substitute #PersPron
(see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes").
Examples:
tobě (=you.DAT/LOC) is represented by the #PersPron
t-lemma;
oni (=they) → #PersPron
;
sobě (=self.DAT/LOC) → #PersPron
.
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.1.3, "Definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns".
possessive pronouns (including the reflexive svůj) are also represented by the t-lemma substitute #PersPron
(see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes").
Examples:
náš (=our) is assigned the #PersPron
t-lemma;
její (=her) → #PersPron
;
svoje (=self's) → #PersPron
.
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.1.3, "Definite pronominal semantic nouns: personal pronouns".
possessive adjectives are represented by the t-lemmas of the corresponding nouns.
Examples:
matčin (=mother's) is represented by the t-lemma matka (=mother);
Pavlova (=Pavel's) → Pavel.
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.1.1, "Denominating semantic nouns".
the short form of an adjective is represented by its basic form (the long one)
Examples:
zklamán (=disappointed) is represented by the t-lemma zklamaný;
spokojena (=satisfied.fem., short form) → spokojený (=satisfied.masc., long form);
ochoten (=willing) → ochotný.
NB! Passive participles are represented by the infinitive; for example pozván (=invited) is represented by a node with the t-lemma pozvat (=invite).
deadjectival adverbs are represented by nodes with the t-lemma of the corresponding adjective.
Example:
pěkně (=nicely) is represented by a node with the t-lemma pěkný (=nice).
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.2.1, "Denominating semantic adjectives".
directional adverbs have locative adverbs as their t-lemmas.
Examples:
tudy (=this_way) is represented by a node with the t-lemma tady (=here);
sem (=here.directional) → tady (=here.locative).
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.3, "Semantic adverbs".
various temporal adverbs have as their t-lemmas adverbs with the (corresponding) basic temporal meaning (i.e. the one answering the question "kdy" (=when).
Examples:
doteď (=until_now) has the t-lemma teď (=now);
doposud (=until_now) → teď (=now).
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.3, "Semantic adverbs".
different types of numerals have t-lemmas identical to the corresponding cardinal numerals.
Examples:
trojí (=three_kinds_of) is represented by a node with the t-lemma tři (=three);
třetina (=one_third) → tři (=three);
kolikátý (=how_many.ordinal) → kolik (=how_many.cardinal);
pětkrát (=five_times) → pět (=five).
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.1.5, "Definite quantificational semantic nouns", Section 6.2.4, "Definite quantificational semantic adjectives" a Section 6.2.5, "Indefinite quantificational semantic adjectives".
different types of pronouns, pronominal adverbs and numerals are represented by nodes with the t-lemma of the corresponding relative pronoun (pronominal adverb or numeral).
Examples:
někdo (=someone) has the t-lemma kdo (=who);
nic (=nothing) → co (=what);
všechen (=all) → co (=what);
žádný (=none) → který (=which).
See Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation" and Section 6.1.4, "Indefinite pronominal semantic nouns", Section 6.2.3, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adjectives", Section 6.3.5, "Definite pronominal semantic adverbs" a Section 6.3.6, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs".
punctuation marks and other symbols are assigned t-lemma substitutes (similarly to personal and possessive pronouns). See Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes".
Examples:
the comma has the t-lemma #Comma
;
dash → #Colon
.
expressions that are built out of more parts (words) but have a single meaning are in some cases represented by a single node with a single t-lemma in which the parts are put together. Such a t-lemma is called multi-word t-lemma; for more details see Section 3, "T-lemmas of multi-word (complex) lexical units".
Examples:
smát se (=laugh; lit. laugh REFL) is represented by a single node whose t-lemma is smát_se;
a nebo (=or; literally and_or) → a_nebo.
van Beethoven → van_Beethoven.
frozen verbal forms (finite forms, as well as transgressives (gerunds) and infinitives, i.e. forms having adverbial functions), are represented by nodes the t-lemmas of which are identical to the surface form of such an expression, e.g. myslím, soudě (=I_think, judging). Similarly, foreign-language expressions (with the FPHR
functor) are assigned t-lemmas that are not different from the corresponding surface forms.
See also Section 5.1, "Dependent verbal clauses without a finite verb form" and Section 9, "Foreign-language expressions".
different variants of conjunctions and other connectives and operators are represented by a node (nodetype
=coap
) the t-lemma of which corresponds to the m-lemma of one of the variants (this is the so called representative t-lemma). The representative t-lemma may also be complex; cf. k) in the list and Section 3.1, "Multi-word t-lemma".
Examples:
both buď (=either) - nebo (=or) and buďto - nebo are represented by a single node with the representative t-lemma buď_nebo;
od (=from) - přes (=via) - do (=to), as well as od - přes - po (=to) and od - přes - k (=to) → od_přes_do.
See also Section 16, "Co-ordinating connectives and operators".
The choice of the t-lemma described in b), c) and e) through i) is a result of taking the derivational processes into account. In principle, derived expressions have the same t-lemma as the base expressions. For the information regarding the relevant derivation types, see Section 1, "Syntactic and lexical derivation".
Newly established nodes may be assigned one of the t-lemma substitutes, which do not correspond to any m-lemma; see Section 4, "T-lemma substitutes". As for determining the appropriate t-lemma, copied nodes are subject to the same rules as the nodes present at the surface level.