6.6. MANN

Definition of the MANN functor

MANN (manner) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying an evaluating charateristic of the event or a property.

MANN modifications express manner directly. It is necessary to distinguish these modifications from those expressing manner by comparison, by specifying a consequence, extent, exception, means etc. The MANN functor is assigned to such adverbial modifications that cannot be assigned a more specific functor.

MANN modifications can modify verbs (=e.g.: tiše.MANN říci (=to say sth quietly)), adjectives (e.g.: nekřesťansky.MANN drahé (=outrageously expensive)), adverbs (e.g.: nápadně.MANN často (=strikingly often)), but also nouns (e.g.: úprava prostředí na míru.MANN (=lit. modification (of) environment to measure)).

Forms. The basic forms of the MANN modification are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With event nouns (ending with -ní or ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events") the MANN modification can also be expressed by an agreeing adjective form.


veřejné.MANN označení (=public name)

těžké.MANN zlehčování (=serious disparagement)

zdárné.MANN řešení (=successful solution)

postupné.MANN opotřebení (=gradual wear and tear)

elektrické.MANN ovládání (=electric control)

rychlé.MANN získání kapitálu (=lit. quick getting (of) capital)

lehkovážné.MANN koketování (=frivolous flirting)

Figure 7.37. The MANN functor

The MANN functor

Odpověděla formou oficiálního dopisu. (=lit. (She) answered in_the_form (of) official letter)

6.6.1. Borderline cases with the MANN functor

Borders with other functors for expressing manner and its specific variants. It is often hard to determine which of the functors from the manner family is to be used. The rule is that the specific functors are to be preferred over the general MANN functor. To determine the right functor, the following questions and paraphrases are used:

  • MANN: "in what way?".

  • RESL: "with what effect/result?", "in such a way that...".

  • EXT: "how much/many?", "to what extent?".

  • REG: "in relation to what?", "concerning", "with respect to", "from the point of view of".

  • ACMP: "with/without what?".

  • MEANS: "by means of what?", "with the help of what?".

  • CPR: "similar to what?", "different from what?", "in comparison to what?".

  • CRIT: "according to what?"

  • RESTR: "with the exception of what?", "who/what exceptionally as well?".

Apart from the homonymous prepositional phrases, also adverbial expressions are very problematic w.r.t. the choice of the right functor. Cf.:

  • Počínal si hazardérsky. (=lit. (He) acted REFL hazardously)

    = He acted like a daredevil.

    Hazardérsky expresses comparison (CPR).

  • Udělali to společně. (=They did it together)

    Společně expresses accompaniment (ACMP).

  • Chová se bezohledně. (=He behaves thoughtlessly)

    = He behaves without consideration for other people.

    Bezohledně refers to an accompanying circumstance (ACMP).

  • Seřaď jména abecedně. (=Order the names in alphabetical order; lit. aphabetically)

    = Order the names in alphabetical order; lit. according to alphabet

    Abecedně has the meaning of a criterion (CRIT).

  • Napiš dopis čitelně. (=Write the letter so that it is readable; lit. readably)

    = Write the letter so that it is readable.

    Čitelně expresses the result (RESL).

!!! In the data, adverbial (and adjectival) expressions are mostly assigned the MANN functor even though they could often get a more specific functor (and this does not concern only functors from the manner family); e.g.:

  • Lyžuje jen rekreačně. (=He only goes skiing for pleasure; lit. recreationally)

    Rekreačně expresses purpose (AIM).

See also Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events".

Border with the ATT functor. For the border with the ATT functor see Section 7.1.1, "Borderline cases with the ATT functor".