6.5. EXT

The definition of the EXT functor

EXT (extent) is a functor for such an adjunct that expresses manner by specifying extent or intensity of the event or a circumstance.

EXT modifications answer questions like: "how much/many?" or "to what extent?".

Subfunctors. The EXT functor is further specified by subfunctors. See Section 13.1.7, "Subfunctory with the EXT functor".

EXT modifications can modify verbs (e.g.: Otevřel dveře dokořán.EXT (=He opened the door wide)), adjectives (e.g.: cele.EXT oddaný (=fully devoted)), adverbs (e.g.: velmi.EXT opatrně (=very cautiously)), but also nouns (e.g.: V nádobě je asi.EXT litr. (=There is approximately one litre (of water) in the container)).

EXT modifications can also modify prepositions (e.g: zcela.EXT pod stolem (=completely under the table)). See Section 17.2, "Closer specification of prepositions".

Valency. EXT modifications are obligatory with a number of verbs, especially those with the meaning of buying or selling; e.g.: platit (=pay) (platil mu 1000.EXT za schránku (=He paid him 1000 for the postbox)), vycházet (=here: cost) (pobyt vychází na 10 000 .EXT (=the stay costs 10 000 Kc)), činit (=make) (poplatek činí 30 .EXT (=the fee is (makes) 30 Kc)), but also with other verbs, which are used for expressing quantity; e.g. vážit (=weigh) (syn váží 57 kg.EXT (=their son weighs 57 kg)), měřit (=measure) (stromek měřil přes dva metry.EXT (=the tree was over two meters tall)), zabírat (=take up) (prodej zabírá polovinu.EXT trhu (=the selling takes up one half of the market)).

Forms. The basic forms of the EXT modification are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With event nouns (ending with -ní or ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), the EXT modification can also be expressed by an agreeing adjective form.


částečné.EXT omezení (=partial limitation)

mírné.EXT zlepšení podmínek (=slight improvement)

velké.EXT snížení daňového zatížení (=big reduction)

výrazné.EXT poškození klienta (=a considerable disservice)

značné.EXT omezení těžby (=considerable reduction)

!!! The EXT functor is rather problematic. It comprises a wide range of meanings, from "how much?", "to what extent?" to "how many?" (expressing the number of things). Cf.:

The individual meanings of the EXT functor are not always separate and independent but they rather combine with meanings of other functors. This can be understood in terms of a special feature: an attribute or subfunctor. Cf.:

The solution is thus inconsistent and calls for revision. In the future it will be necessary to distinguish those modifications that really express extent from those with which the extent is just an additional feature. Further, it is necessary to consider whether the modifications of the type "how much?" with verbs like platit (=pay), vážit (=weigh), činit (=be/cost) should be assigned the EXT functor.

Figure 7.36. The EXT functor

The EXT functor

Utkání se příliš nevyvedlo. (=lit. Match REFL much not_was_good)

6.5.1. Borderline cases with the EXT functor

Border with the DIFF functor. Semantically, the EXT functor is very close to the DIFF functor (see Section 6.4, "DIFF"). See Section 6.4.1, "Borderline cases with the DIFF functor".

Borders with arguments. The EXT functor is assigned also to modifications with the meaning "how much?" following verbs of buying and selling but also other verbs expressing quantity. With a number of verbs, such a modification is obligatory; it is, however, distinguished from a simple Patient (see Section 2, "Argument functors"). Cf.:

  • Váží pět kilo.EXT (=It weighs five kg)

  • Váží mouku.PAT (=He is weighing flour)