4.4. LOC

Definition of the LOC functor

The LOC functor (locative) is a functor for a free modification that specifies the location answering the question "where?", i.e. it indicates the place at which the event or state is situated.

Subfunctors. The LOC functor is further specified by subfunctors. See Section 13.1.8, "Subfunctors with the LOC functor".

Valency. LOC modifications are obligatory for many verbs with the meaning of something being somewhere (e.g. nacházet se (=to_be_found), ocitnout se (=to_find_oneself), objevit se (=to_appear), rozkládat se (=to_stretch), bydlet (=to_live/to_dwell)), hostovat (=to_guest)), but also for several verbs with a different meaning (bolet (=to_ache), chybět (=to_miss)). In some cases the obligatory modification with the LOC functor alternates with an obligatory modification with the DIR3 functor (e.g. odevzdat knihy v knihovně.LOC (=lit. to_hand_in (the) book in (a) library) / do knihovny.DIR3 (=lit. to (a) library)).

Forms. The basic forms of LOC modifications are:

Agreeing form of an adjective. With nouns denoting events (nouns ending with with -ní and ; see Section, "Functors assigned to the non-valency modifications of nouns referring to events"), LOC modifications are expressed also by agreeing foms of adjectives.


evropské.LOC jednání (=lit. European negotiation)

Amerického.LOC vydání se nedávno dočkal Škvoreckého Tankový prapor. (=lit. (To) American edition - lately has_waited Škvorecký's Tank Battalion.)

Tamní.LOC jednání trvají. (=lit. Local negotiations last.)

zahraniční.LOC utkání (=lit. international match)

Figure 7.23. The LOC functor

The LOC functor

Kde na mě počkáte? (=lit. Where for me will_you_wait?)

4.4.1. Borderline cases with the LOC functor

Borders between locative and directional functors. The LOC functor borders on other locative or directional functors, namely in those cases in which a preposition is used that can express more locative/directional meanings. The choice of the functor in a particular construction is usually determined by the context and semantics of the modified word. Cf.:

  • Dej to poblíž plotu.DIR3 (=lit. Put it near (the) fence.)

    Našel to poblíž plotu.LOC (=lit. (He) found it near (the) fence.)

    Cesta vedla poblíž plotu.DIR2 (=lit. (The) path led near (the) fence.)

  • Bydlí vedle našeho domu.LOC (=lit. (He) lives next_to our house.)

    Položil to vedle našeho domu.DIR3 (=lit. (He) put it next_to our house.)

    Vedle našeho domu.DIR2 vede cesta. (=lit. Next_to our house is (a) path.)

  • Cesta vede mezi zahradami.DIR2 (=lit. (The) path leads between gardens.)

    Našel cestičku mezi zahradami.LOC (=lit. (He) found (a) path between gardens.)

A similar situation arises with adverbs. Cf.:

  • Musíte zahnout vlevo.DIR3 (=lit. (You) must turn (to) (the) left.)

    Šatny jsou vlevo.LOC (=lit. Changing_rooms are (on) (the) left.)

    Prošli vlevo.DIR2 (=lit. (They) passed (on) (the) left.)

However, in a particular context the annotator can always choose a functor according to his/her understanding of the sentence. Cf.:

  • transport důvěrných listin přes hranice (=lit. transport (of) confidential documents across (the) border)

    The modification přes hranice (=lit. across (the) border) can mean either "where to?" (functor DIR3), or "in which direction?" (functor DIR2).

For the competition of different locative/directional modifications within valency frames of verbs see Section, "Competing locative/directional adjuncts (of different types)" and Section, "Addressee vs. locative/directional adjuncts".

Border with the DIR3 functor. Many locative modifications (vedle skříně (=lit. next_to (a) wardrobe), okolo stromu (=lit. around (a) tree), poblíž východu (=lit. near exit)) can be used as answers both to the question "where to?", and the question "where?". The choice of the functor follows usually from the semantics of the governing word. Compare the examples above.

However, many verbs (and their nominal and adjectival derivatives) that have the meaning of taking up a place or changing the position can be modified both by a modification with the LOC meaning, and by a modification with the DIR3 meaning. The choice of the functor depends on the context and semantics of the governing verb: when modified by a DIR3 modification, the verb has the meaning of taking up a place (which might be accompanied by a change in position); when modified by a LOC modification, the same verb has the meaning of changing the position and the LOC modification specifies the location where the change took place. Following the difference between the sentences usedl na postel.DIR3 (=lit. (he) sat_down on (a) bed) and usedl na posteli.LOC (=lit. (he) sat_down on (a) bed), the appropriate functor (DIR3 or LOC) is assigned to the modification ambiguous in its form. Cf.:

  • Indiáni usedli vedle ohně. (=lit. (The) American_Indians sat_down by (the) fire.)

    The modification vedle ohně (=lit. by (the) fire) can answer both the question kam usedli? (=lit. where_to did_they_sit_down?) (DIR3), and the question kde usedli? (where did_they_sit_down?) (LOC). The modification vedle ohně (=lit. by (the) fire), however, expresses rather taking up a place, so it will be assigned the DIR3 functor (the meaning of the LOC functor is not excluded if the Indians were first lying by the fire and something disturbed them, in such case the modification vedle ohně (=by the fire) in the sentence Najednou indiáni vedle ohně usedli. (=lit. Suddenly (the) Indians by (the) fire sat_up.) can express the change of position).

Those verbs which do not express the change of position but which can be modified both by a modification with the LOC and DIR3 functor, are to be preferrably assigned the DIR3 functor (in case the two modifications are formally identical). Cf.:

  • Schoval se pod postel.DIR3 (=lit. (He) hid himself under (the) bed.)

  • Schoval se pod postelí.LOC

  • Schoval se poblíž východu.DIR3 (=lit. (He) hid himself near (the) exit.)

    The modification poblíž východu (=lit. near (the) exit) is assigned the DIR3 functor (although it can also provide the answer to the question "where?").

Border with the TWHEN functor. If the form is identical (esp. the prepositions) and abstract expressions are used, the distinction between the functors LOC and TWHEN (see Section 3.1, "TWHEN") can be blurred, too. For details see Section 3.1.1, "Borderline cases with the TWHEN functor".

Borders with other functors. LOC modifications can also border on other than locative/directional or temporal functors. However, in a particular context the choice of the functor is usually unambiguous. Cf.:

  • Stařec naříkal nad vesnicí. (=lit. (The) old_man was_weeping for (the) village/over (the) village.)

    The modification nad vesnicí (=lit. for (the) village/over/above (the) village) can express the location where the event takes place (then it is assigned the LOC functor), or the village can represent the cause of the old man's weeping and then the expression nad vesnicí (=for the village) is assigned the CAUS functor.