Adverbials (and borderline cases)


After a specification of adverbials in Specification of adverbials the so-called combined functions are mentioned in Combined functions and different problems with the determination of adverbials are discussed: temporal adverbials ( Problematic cases of temporal modifications), combination of more such adverbials side by side (Two and more adjecent temporal modifications in the sentence), temporal modifications with relation to the situation (Temporal modification relative to an event), adverbials expressing repetition (Adverbial of temporal repetition and Temporal adverbial expresseding repetition lexically), temporal adverbials modified by a specification of speed (Temporal adverbial modified by stating the rate of speed). Adverbials of location expressed in relation to the place are discussed in Local adverbial relating to some place. The boundary between Adv and Atr is often difficult to be drawn; these situation are described in The boundaries of Adv and Atr.

The means of expressions are discussed in Expression of adverbials: nouns in Adverbial expressed by means of a noun, adverbs in Adverbial expressed by an adverb, adverbs in collocations in Adverbial expressed by an adverb phraseologism, infinitive in Adverbial expressed by an infinitive and by a subordinate clause in Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause. A special type of expression is that with the conjunctions jako (as) and než (than), which is illustrated in Adverbial expressed by a clause (or a group) with conjunctions jak(o) - as, než(li) - than.

The section Kinds of adverbials according to meaning is devoted to a more detailed description of adverbials according to their meaning, since each of such a subclass has forms of its own: local (Adverbial of place), temporal (Adverbial of time), manner (Adverbial of manner), extent (Adverbial of measure), means (Adverbial of means), regard (Adverbial of respect), causal (Adverbial of cause), consequence (Adverbial of consequence), aim (Adverbial of purpose), condition (Adverbial of condition), concession (Adverbial of concession) and a special class of inheritance (Adverbial of inheritance).

Specification of adverbials


Adverbials express the circumstances and relations such as location, time, manner, comparison, extent, means, cause, consequence, regard or aim. In our analytic scenario, all adverbials have the afun Adv and are not subclassified any further.

Some modifications understood by Šmilauer as adverbials are treated here as objects (Obj). This concerns modifications expressing origin and result of the action rendered by the verb (see Object of the type Origin and Result), which are characterized by Šmilauer as not expressable by a subordinate clause; however, in our approach they are considered to be valency slots and as such they belong to the verbal frame.

Emphasized modifications are Obj:

  1. získávat   peníze   od   příznivců  
    get   money   from   adherents  

  2. zvýšit   příspěvek   na   1000    
    raise   contribution   to   1000   crowns  

  3. vyrůst   z   chlapce   v   muže  
    grow-up   from   boy   to   man  

Adverbials modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb, its form is given by the rection of the governing element.

A special attention is to be devoted to the discrimination between Obj and Adv. A given modification is an adverbial, if it answers an adverbial question where?, where to?, from where?, how long?, when?, for what purpose?, why?, how? etc. and if verbal rection is not concerned (i.e. in case of rection, the given modification is an object and answers questions on morphological cases: who? for Nominative, of whom? for Genitive etc.). Abstract or metaphorical meanings tend to be determined as Obj (see zaplést se do intrik to get involved in intriques: this is not a location).

  1. narazit   do   čeho  
    to-knock   at   something   -   where   to?   -   Adv  

  2. plavat   v   čem   ,   pod   čím   ,   podél   čeho  
    to-swim   in   smth   ,   under   smth   ,   along   smth   -   where?   -   Adv  

  3. přistoupit   k   řece  
    to-approach   (to)   river   -   where   to?   -   Adv  


  1. narazit   na   problém  
    to-meet   with   problem   -   Obj  

  2. zaplést   se   do   intrik  
    to-get-involved   Refl   in   intrigues   -   Obj  

  3. přistoupit   k   řešení  
    to-approach   (to)   solution   -   Obj  

  4. zabrat   se   do   čeho  
    to-plunge   Refl   into   smth.   -   Obj  

Adjectives (esp. deverbatives) also may be modified by objects (plný něčeho full of something).

  1. velmi   velká  
    very   big  

  2. nejtěžší   od   vypuknutí   války  
    hardest   from   beginning   of-war  

  3. noc   strávená   ve   sklepeních  
    night   spent   in   cellars  

  4. nejpřítulnější   ze   všech   zvířátek  
    most-fawning   of   all   animals  

Adjectives may be, of course, modified by adverbials (Adv) as well. Such an adverbial itself often functions as an adverbial. If two adverbials occur in a sentence side by side, it might be difficult to decide whether they are independent of each other or if one modifies the other, as in the following examples. See Problematic cases of temporal modifications and Problems of local adverbial on a discussion of the relation between two adverbials.

The dependent adverbial is emphasized:

  1. těsně   před   Vánocemi  
    immediately   before   Christmas  

  2. o   den   později  
    (by)   a-day   later  

  3. daleko   od   Moskvy  
    far   from   Moscow  

  4. rovnoběžně   s   dálnicí  
    in-parallel   with   motorway  

  5. blízko   k   centru  
    close   to   center  

  6. úměrně   podmínkám  
    proportionally   to-conditions  

  7. lépe   než   dobře  
    better   than   well  

  8. nesmírně   mnoho  
    immensely   many  

Combined functions


Combined ('slashed') functions in general are described in detail in Combined functions. In the present section only those of them that concern adverbials, i.e. AtrAdv and AdvAtr.

Combined functions are used in cases when the given node may obtain either of the possible functions in the given context without any change of meaning (i.e. the sentence is not strictly ambiguous as for the function of the given node).

The functions AtrAdv and AdvAtr are thus used in case the node concerned may be either an adverbial Adv of its predicate or an attribute of some lower node in the tree. If the annotator's intuition prefers the attributive interpretation, s/he assigns the function AtrAdv; in the opposite case s/he assigns AdvAtr.

In both cases, the given node will always depend in that position in which it would be placed if it were an Atr; it will never depend on the verb.

  1. přinesla   bednu   ze   sklepa  
    she-brought   box   from   cellar  

  2. neměl   čas   na   čtení  
    he-did-not-have   time   for   reading  

Problematic cases of temporal modifications


Two and more adjecent temporal modifications in the sentence


The solution presented in this section does not claim to be a theoretical one, it is a mere convention.

In case the sentence contains several temporal adverbials, they are hung as sisters. This case is illustrated by the first six examples.

The two mutually independent adverbials are emphasized.

  1. včera   večer   pil  
    yesterday   evening   he-drank  

  2. včera   brzy   ráno   místního   času   vstal  
    yesterday   early   in-the-morning   of-local   time   he-got-up  

  3. letos   v   únoru   zmizel  
    this-year   in   February   he-disappeared  

  4. upadl   v   sobotu   ráno  
    he-fell-down   on   Saturday   morning  

  5. přišel   v   sobotu   v   šest  
    he-came   on   Saturday   at   six  

  6. zemřel   v   úterý   ve   4   hodiny   místního   času  
    he-died   on   Tuesday   at   4   o'clock   of-local   time  

If the given adverbials are not considered to be mutually independent, it is necessary to determine the direction of the relation of dependency. The first factor to be taken into account is morphology; the following rules should be applied:

Rule 1: If the governing node is a morphological adverb, both the governing and the depending adverbial are assigned the afun Adv.

The governing node can be a part of a meaningful question, e.g. when in the evening?, or when yesterday?.

The repertory of words that can modify adverbs is rather small, since the adverbs mostly are placed as sisters. From the syntactic point of view, these words are often ambiguous: e.g. the word brzo in the construction brzo ráno is an equivalent of English early (early in the morning) and depends on the noun; however, it can also stand alone, if it has the meaning of English soon.

The dependent word is emphasized.

  1. brzy   ráno  
    early   in-the-morning  

Rule 2: If the governing node is a noun (with or without a preposition) and the dependent node is a noun in the Genitive case or accompanied by a preposition, and this node evidently has the function of an attribute (answering the question which?), it gets the afun Atr. Cases with nouns in Genitive are quite clear; in case the annotator hesitates, the combined afun AtrAdv or AdvAtr can be assigned.

The dependent Atr's are emphasized.

  1. ve   4   hodiny   místního   času  
    at   4   o'clock   of-local   time  

  2. 23.   května   roku   1993  
    23rd   of-May   of-the-year   1993  

  3. v   létě   v   roce   1998  
    in   summer   in   the-year   1998  

Temporal modification relative to an event


The function of the governing node is determined by its function in the given sentence.

Let us demonstrate two possibilities how to represent two adjacent temporal modifications:

  1. The governor is an adverb, the depending member is Adv (it answers such questions as how soon? how immediately?, by what sooner?). The dependent adverb is emphasized:

    1. brzy   po   Vánocích  
      soon   after   Christmas  

    2. o   devět   minut   dříve  
      (by)   nine   minutes   earlier  

  2. The governor is a noun, the dependent is its Atr; depending on the context, it may be also an AtrAdv or AdvAtr, and in some special cases (determined by the valency of verbs) also just Adv or Obj; notational convention: the noun attached by prepositions před (before) and po (after) are always Atr.

    The dependent is emphasized:

    1. měsíc   před   porodem  
      month   before   delivery   -   Atr  

    2. 5   minut   po   odjezdu  
      5   minutes   after   departure   -   Atr  

    3. ty   dva   roky   do   dosažení   zletilosti   profláká  
      the   two   years   till   reaching   full-age   he-will-idle-his-time   -   Atr  

    4. zbývají   mu   dva   roky   do   dosažení   zletilosti  
      are-left   to-him   two   years   till   reaching   full-age   -   AtrAdv  

    5. zbývají   mu   do   dosažení   zletilosti   dva   roky  
      are-left   to-him   till   reaching   full-age   two   years   -   Adv  

Adverbial of temporal repetition


In the adverbials of repetition with words such as vždy (always), kolikrát (how many times), x-krát (x-times), tolikrát (so many times) (multiples), the ...krát (...times) figures as the governing element, on which the expression of interval (rendered by an adverb or prepositional construction) depends. (The question is: how often, how many times?)

The dependent Adv emphasized:

  1. sedmkrát   každý   týden  
    seven-times   every   week  

  2. kolikrát   ročně  
    how-many-times   a-year  

  3. každý   měsíc   jen   jednou  
    every   month   just   once  
    just once in every month

  4. jedenkrát   ob   dva   týdny  
    once   after   two   weeks  
    once every other two weeks/fortnight

Temporal adverbial expresseding repetition lexically


Adverbs of repetition (denně daily, ročně yearly,...) and prepositional groups such as každou hodinu (every hour) or za rok (in a year), are primarily classified as Atr, depending on a noun (unit).

Such a potential Atr can be used as Adv and may be assigned AtrAdv/AdvAtr as well, according to usual rules (5000 Kč daily).

  1. dvě   partičky   mariáše   každý   měsíc   jsou   málo  
    two   little-games   of-whist   every   month   are   not-enough  

  2. 185   minut   týdně   ti   nic   neudělá  
    185   minutes   a-week   you-Dat   nothing   won't-harm  
    185 minutes a week won't harm you

Temporal adverbial modified by stating the rate of speed


If distance is specified by means of time + speed, the modifying part constitutes an Atr of the time unit (it is being suspended under this unit, rather than on the numerical expression). With minutes by bus, the question runs, e.g.: what minutes? However, this differs from an Adv, present, e.g., in jel tam 5 minut autobusem (he went there 5 minutes by bus), in which autobusem (by bus) is Adv dependent on the verb.

  1. 5   minut   autobusem   není   žádná   velká   dálka  
    5   minutes   by-bus   is-not   no   great   distance  

  2. ty   dvě   hodiny   vlakem   rychle   uběhly  
    those   two   hours   by-train   rapidly   elapsed  

Problems of local adverbial


Local adverbial relating to some place


The rules are analogous to the rules of temporal adverbial dealt with in the part Temporal modification relative to an event.

In what follows two possibilities of representing two contact local adverbials are described.

  1. The governing member is an adverb, the subordinate member being thus Adv (questions: how near? how close? how deep? by what/by how much further/aside?).

    1. blízko   za   městem  
      close   outside   town  

    2. o   metr   vedle  
      by   meter   aside  
      missing by a meter

  2. The governing member is a noun, the subordinate member being its Atr; according to context it also can be AtrAdv/AtrObj, consequently in some cases Adv/Obj (in accordance with verb valency), in agreement with the rules of annotation (questions: what kilometres? what sight? what piece?).

    Convention: od (from) (if the case is not a valency, etc.) is only Atr.

    The dependent member with a different afun is emphasized.

    1. dva   kilometry   od   řeky  
      two   kilometres   from   river   -   Atr  

    2. 8   mil   do   Prahy  
      8   miles   to   Prague   -   AtrAdv  

    3. do   Prahy   je   odtud   8   mil  
      to   Prague   it-is   from-here   8   miles   -   Adv  
      it is 8 miles to Prague from here

    4. na   dohled   od   břehu  
      within   sight   of   shore   -   Atr  

    5. kousek   pod   jezem  
      a-little-bit   below   weir   -   AtrAdv  

The boundaries of Adv and Atr


If two nouns (as the case may be, with a preposition) come together, that one which potentially depends on the other may become either really the other's Atr (AtrAdv, AdvAtr), or its sister Adv.

The potentially governing member obtains its function according to context. The potentially dependent member can become its Atr (AtrAdv, AdvAtr) provided it immediately follows that governor in the word-order (ex. (1) - (5)). A non-agreeing attribute preceding the governing word is not regarded as Atr but for exceptional cases created by valences of nouns (interest in, time for, time to, will to, thought of,..., see Non-agreeing attribute in a non-projective position in the sentence). In these cases it is regarded as Atr in spite of the possibility of causing non-projectivity of the tree. If the potentially dependent member cannot become an Atr (AtrAdv, AdvAtr), it is suspended as Adv alongside the potentially governing member (exx. (6) - (9)).


ex. (2)

they are really neighbour's skis

ex. (3)

it is not clear whether the skis were neighbour`s or whether he came from the neighbour

ex. (7)

he came from the neighbour on some (undetermined) skis

ex. (8)

Bosnia at the sea is not the case

  1. bydlela   na   Vyšehradě   v   Praze  
    she-lived   at   Vyšehrad   in   Prague  

  2. stál   na   lyžích   od   souseda  
    he-stood   on   skis   from   neighbour  

  3. přijel   na   lyžích   od   souseda  
    he-arrived   on   skis   from   neighbour  

  4. přinesla   bednu   ze   sklepa  
    she-brought   case   from   basement  

  5. Kostelec   nad   Černými   Lesy  
    Kostelec   over   Black   Woods  

  6. v   Praze   bydlela   na   Vyšehradě  
    in   Prague   she-lived   at   Vyšehrad  

  7. na   lyžích   přijel   od   souseda  
    on   skis   he-arrived   from   neighbour  
    he arrived on skis from the neighbour

  8. pracoval   v   Bosně   u   moře  
    he-worked   in   Bosnia   at   sea  

  9. ze   sklepa   přinesla   bednu  
    from   basement   she-brought   case  

Expression of adverbials


Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


An adverbial can be expressed by means of a noun in an indirect case, simple or prepositional.


As regards prepositional cases, Adv is assigned only if verbal government (“rection”) is excluded (e.g. in nesouhlasil se smlouvou - he did not agree to the contract - the prepositional group is governed by the verb and it gets Obj).

The described expression of Adv is printed in emphasized types

  1. Aloisie   pobíhala   kuchyní  
    Aloisia   was-running   kitchen-Instr  
    Aloisia was running about the kitchen

  2. Theofil   dojede   do   lesa  
    Theophil   will-drive   to   wood  

Adverbial expressed by an adverb


In addition to current adverbs (ex. (1)) we also regard as Adv absolute (discrete) transgressive constructions (i.e., those that neither agree nor have a subject in common with the verb, ex. (2)). The common transgressives, however, fulfil the function of complements (see the part Complement expressed by a transgressive).

The absolute transgressive constructions mentioned above are prototypically separated by a comma; then they are regarded as parenthesis with afun Adv_Pa (see A syntactically incorporated sentence part with <afun>_Pa).

The described expression of Adv is printed in emphasized types

  1.   se   dobře  
    s/he-is   Refl   well  
    s/he is well

  2. vyváděli   tam   všichni   o   Karlovi   nemluvě  
    were-frolicking   there   all   about   Charles   not-mentioning  
    they were frolicking all there, not to mention Charles

Adverbial expressed by an adverb phraseologism


In Collocations, phraseologisms (phrasemes) we describe how collocations are to be represented and what is regarded as a collocation in our conception. Since most of the collocations fulfil functions of adverbials, this phenomenon is dealt with here as well.

The last word (from the point of view of word-order) of a collocation becomes its “representative” and as such it is assigned afun Adv. The remaining words depend on it and obtain afun AuxY.

prošel   jsem   Žižkov   křížem   krážem  
I-passed   Aux   Žižkov   cross   criss  
I passed through Žižkov crisscrossing it

Adverbial expressed by an infinitive


As a rule, the infinitive expresses condition. In the protoypical case, it is separated by a comma and then it is regarded as parenthesis with afun Adv_Pa (see A syntactically incorporated sentence part with <afun>_Pa).

nebýt   nás   by   nepřežil  
not-to-be   us   would   he-not-survived  
but for/if it were not for us he wouldn't survive

Within this category also the expression of Adv by a 'discrete' participle (příčestí nespojité) belongs. This, too, is usually separated by commas and therefore it is regarded as parenthesis (Adv_Pa - ex. (2)). The boundary between a discrete adverbial and an incomplete (parenthetic) clause with an elided copula is fuzzy. The latter case is described in An independent sentential form (containing a predicate) Pred_Pa: e.g. the sentence Před smrtí, neznámo proč, si koupil tramvajenku - (Shortly) before his death, for reasons unknown, he bought a tram pass.

  1. on   je   mírně   řečeno   trouba  
    he   is   mildly   said   blockhead  
    he is, to put it mildly, a blockhead

  2. po   pravdě   řečeno,   neumím   to  
    for   truth   said   I-am-no-good   it  
    to tell the truth, I am no good at it

Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause


pokud   budu   živ,   nepůjdu   tam  
as-long-as   I-will-be   alive   I-shall-not-go   there  

Adverbial expressed by a clause (or a group) with conjunctions jak(o) - as, než(li) - than


A complete subordinate clause (with a verb) following the above conjunctions constitutes an Adv. A sentence member constitutes Adv only if it pertains in a close manner to the node placed immediately above the conjunction - it belongs to the same kind, which is why it could occur in the sentence in place of what it modifies (lépe než dobře - better than well, více než pět - more than five, široký jako vysoký - as wide as high). In other cases (zdravý jako ryba - as sound as a fish/bell) it represents an ellipsis (he is as sound as the fish/bell is sound) and the afun ExD is used.

This problem is dealt with in detail in Phrases of comparison with conjunctions jako (as), než (than). The use of afun ExD is specified in Ellipsis of predicate in clauses introduced by conjuctions jak(o) (like), než(li) (than).

  1. Bohouš   je   zdravý   jako   rychlý  
    Bohouš   is   sound   as   quick  
    Bohouš is as sound as quick

  2. zavěsil   to   níž   než   nad   křeslo  
    he-hanged   it   lower   than   over   armchair  

Kinds of adverbials according to meaning

The kinds of adverbials:

Adverbial of place
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    jsi   hodinu   cesty   odtud  
    you-are   one-hour's   ride   from-there  


    1. prošli   chodbou  
      they-passed   corridor-Instr  

    2. sálem   zněl   smích  
      hall-Instr   sounded   laughter  
      the hall resounded with laughter

    3. mistr   se   rozhlédl   dílnou  
      foreman   Refl   took-a-look   workshop-Instr  

    prepositional cases:

    FF   stojí   proti   Mánesovu   mostu  
    FF   is-situated   opposite   Mánes   Bridge  

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    nevlídně   se   dívala   kolem  
    unkindly   Refl   she-was-looking   around  

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    jen   tam   je   láska,   kde   panuje   přátelství  
    only   there   is   love   where   prevails   friendship  
    love only resides where friendship prevails

Adverbial of time
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    přijel   tam   roku   1918  
    he-arrived   there   in-year   1918  


    poslední   dobu   byla   podivná  
    recent   time   she-has-been   strange  
    she has been behaving strangely of late


    chvílemi   vyběhla   na   pavláčku  
    times-Instr   she-appeared   on   gallery  
    time and again she appeared on the gallery

    prepositional cases:

    bylo   to   na   počátku   léta  
    was   it   at   beginning   of-summer  

    A list of possible Czech prepositions in such constructions: do, během, k, kolem, koncem, mezi, na, o, ob, od, okolo, po, pod, pro, před, přes, při, skrze, uprostřed, v,z, za.

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    včera   dosáhl   cíle  
    yesterday   he-reached   goal  

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. otec   zemřel,   když   šlo   chlapci   na   11.   rok  
      father   died   when   it-got   boy-Dat   on   11th   year  
      father died when the boy was getting on his 11th year

    2. učil   se,   zatímco   Vojta   spal  
      he-was-learning   Refl.   while   Vojta   was-sleeping  

    A list of possible conjunctions in such constructions: když, až, zatímco, mezitímco, pokud, dokud, jakmile, jak, sotva(že), leda(že), kdykoli, než.

Adverbial of manner

Manner can be expressed directly, by comparison and by effect.


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    1. Vašek   se   na   něho   díval   úkosem  
      Vašek   Refl   at   him   looked   askance  

    2. romány   se   rodily   závratnou   rychlostí  
      novels   Refl   were-born   extreme   speed-Instr  
      novels were born with the speed of a lightning

    3. šli   zástupem  
      they-walked   in-column-Instr  

    4. půjdeme   procházkou  
      we-shall-go   walk-Instr  
      we shall take a walk there

    5. zuřila   zlobou  
      she-was-raging   hatred-Instr  

    prepositional cases:

    1. přišli   všichni   kromě   něho  
      arrived   all   besides   him  
      all arrived but for him

    2. Karel   jel   s   Pavlem  
      Charles   drove   with   Paul  

    3. vytrhnul   jej   i   s   kořeny  
      he-wrenched-out   it   even   with   roots  
      he wrenched it out with roots

    4. hledí   s   úžasem  
      (s)he-stares   with   amazement  

    5. dostavili   se   všichni   včetně   učitele  
      turned-up   Refl   all   including   teacher  
      all turned up including the teacher

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    jak   se   jmenuješ  
    how   Refl   you-call  
    what is your name

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. rozběhl   se,   jak   měl   ve   zvyku  
      he-started-running   Refl   as   he-had   in   custom  
      he started running as was his custom

    2. odešla,   aniž   mu   odpověděla  
      she-went-off   without   him   she-answered  
      she went off without answering him


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    nespokojenost   vzplane   požárem  
    dissatisfaction   will-flare-up   conflagration-Instr  
    dissatisfaction will flare up in a conflagration

    prepositional cases:

    vypadá   proti   své   choti   dost   nepatrně  
    s/he-looks   against   his   wife   rather   insignificant  
    he looks rather insignificant compared with his wife

    A list possible Czech prepositions in these constructions: proti, oproti, na rozdíl od, ve srovnání s

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    mužsky   se   zamračil  
    in-manlike-way   Refl   he-frowned  
    he frowned in a manlike way

  3. Adverbial expressed by a clause (or a group) with conjunctions jak(o) - as, než(li) - than

    jak   se   usnesli,   tak   vykonali  
    as   Refl   they-had-decided,   so   they-carried-out  
    as they had decided, they carried out


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    velbloud   k   naší   lítosti   odklusal  
    camel   to   our   regret   trotted-away  
    to our regret the camel trotted away

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    Pavel   hanebně   prohrál  
    Paul   shamefully   lost  

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    mám   ruce   ztuhlé   tak,   že   prsty   nenarovnám  
    I-have   hands   stiff   so   that   fingers   I-not-straighten  
    my hands have gone so stiff that I cannot straighten my fingers

Adverbial of measure

Measure can be expressed directly, by comparison, effect, restriction or by difference.


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    kroupa   vážila   půl   kila  
    hailstone   weighed   half   kilo-Acc  

    (the case is accusative with numerical data - see Expression with numerals, figures in different functions)


    prepositional cases:

    1. vypil   nápoj     do   dna  
      he-drained   drink   down   to   bottom  
      he drained the potion down to the bottom

    2. bylo   nás   ke   stu  
      it-was   us   towards   one-hundred  
      there was towards one hundred of us

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    1. ještě   větší   jízlivost  
      still   greater   malice  

    2. pokoj   otevřený   dokořán  
      room   open   wide  

    3. byl   silně   udýchán  
      he-was   rather   breathless  

    4. rozkousl   je   napolo   nevědomky  
      he-bit-apart   them   half   unawares  

    5. kráčel   nepříliš   ochotně  
      he-was-walking   not-very   willingly  

    6. kymácím   se   docela   vzadu  
      I-am-teetering   Refl   quite   at-the-rear  

    7. jsem   schopen   nanejvýš   ironie  
      I-am   capable-of   at-most   irony  
      irony is the most I am capable of

    8. to   činí   úhrnem   100    
      this   makes   in-total   100    

  3. Adverbial expressed by an adverb phraseologism

    čerta   starého   mi   na     záleží  
    devil-Acc   old   me   about   her   it-is-of-importance  
    I don`t give a damn about her


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    jitro   je   rozumnější   večera  
    morning   is   more-clever   evening-Gen  
    you should consult your pillow


    krev   se   řinula   proudem  
    blood   Refl   flowed   streams-Instr  

    prepositional cases:

    bohatství   snů   roste   úměrně   s   množstvím   pocitů  
    abundance   of-dreams   grows   in-proportion   with   quantity   of-feelings  

    A list of possible Czech prepositions in these constructions: proti, nad, od, s, úměrně s

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    ženská   si   spíš   pomůže  
    woman   Refl   more-likely   helps  
    a woman is more likely to take care for herself

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    čím   krásnější   je   sen,   tím   bolestnější   bude   procitnutí  
    the   more-beautiful   is   dream,   the   more-painful   will-be   awakening  
    the more beautiful the dream, the more painful the awakening

  4. Adverbial expressed by a clause (or a group) with conjunctions jak(o) - as, než(li) - than

    jak   bláznivě   ji   měl   rád,   tak   bláznivě   žárlil  
    as   foolishly   her   he-had   loved   so   foolishly   he-was-jealous  
    as foolishly as he loved her, so foolishly he was jealous of her


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    nenáviděla   ji   na   smrt  
    she-hated   her   to   death  

    A list of possible Czech prepositions in these constructions: (až) do, (až) k, (až) na

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    vypadala   nepopsatelně   vábně  
    she-looked   undescribably   inviting  

  3. Adverbial expressed by an infinitive

    stromy   jsou   jako   košťata,   jen   rozpučet  
    trees   are   like   besoms,   just-about   to-flourish  

  4. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. nejsem   tak   nepřející,   abych   to   vypil  
      I-am-not   so   envious   that   it   I-drank-up  
      I am not so envious to drink it up

    2. chrám   přeplněný   tak,     lidé   omdlévali  
      temple   overcrowded   so   that   people   were-fainting  

    3. tak   ho   pokousali,   že   zemřel  
      they   him   bited   that   he-died  
      they bited him in such a way that he died


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    zapomněla   všechno   kromě   rumu  
    she-forgot   everything   except   rum  
    she forgot everything but for rum

    A list of possible Czech prepositions in these constructions: kromě, vyjma, s výjimkou, mimo, (až) na


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    radost   rodičů   je   větší   o   radost   dětí  
    delight   of-parents   is   greater   by   delight   of-children  
    the parents' delight increases by the delight of their children

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    daleko   upřímnější   sjednocení  
    by-far   more-sincere   union  

Adverbial of means

Means can be represented by aid or measure.


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    cvrnkali   sklenkami   o   mísy  
    they-were-clinking   glasses   against   bowls  
    they were clinking their glasses against the bowls


    with verbs in passive voice the means (aid) becomes actor, i.e., Obj (byl přivítán předsedou - he was welcomed by the chairman)


    prepositional cases:

    1. přísahala   na   kříž  
      she-swore   on   cross  

    2. držel   koně   na   oprati  
      he-kept   horses   on   reins  

    3. po   hlavě   chodit   neumím  
      on   head   walk   I-can`t  

    4. dřela   za   mírku   brambor  
      she-drudged   for   small-bowl   of-potatoes  
      she used to drudge for a small bowl of potatoes

    A list of possible Czech prepositions: na, o, po, skrze, v, za, pomocí, prostřednictvím

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    vyjádřil   to   hudebně  
    he-expressed   it   musically  

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    život   můžeme   zkoumat   jen   tak,   že   zkoumáme   živou   hmotu  
    life   we-can   examine   only   so   that   we-examine   living   matter  
    we can examine life only by examining living matter


  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    mám   právem   nárok   na   dovolenou  
    I-have   rightly   claim   for   leave  
    I make a rightful claim for a leave

    prepositional cases:

    1. ústav   chce   podle   ředitele   přežít  
      institute   wants   according-to   director   to-survive  
      according to the director the institute wants to survive

    2. výkon   se   snižuje   úměrně   podmínkám  
      performance   Refl   scales-down   proportionally-to   conditions  
      the performance scales down corresponding to conditions

    A list of possible Czech prepositions in these constructions: podle, dle, po, z, úměrně, na podkladě, na základě, v souhlasu s, v souladu s, soudě dle.

Adverbial of respect
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    1. zevnějškem   se   podobal   Pavlovi  
      by-external-appearance-Instr   Refl   he-resembled   Paul  

    2. plemena   příbuzná   jazykem  
      races   cognate   in-language-Instr  

    3. dědeček   byl   povoláním   rybář  
      grandfather   was   by-profession-Instr   fisherman  

    This construction occurs with such verbs as rovnat se, různit se, lišit se, přizpůsobit se (equal, differ, differentiate, adapt), etc., with relative adjectives and with the word groups být (stávat se) něčím, (nějakým) - be (become) st.(some)


    prepositional cases:

    1. sbor   je   (co)   do   počtu   slabý  
      chorus   is   (as)   to   numbers   scant  
      as to numbers the chorus is scant

    2. byla   k   němu   bezcitná  
      she-was   to   him   heartless  

    3. tempo   je   pro   nás   rychlé  
      speed   is   for   us   high  
      the speed is too high for us

    4. s   podnájemníky   neměla   štěstí  
      with   tenants   she-had-not   luck  
      she had bad luck with her tenants

    5. všechno   u   mne   večerem   počíná  
      all   by   me   evening-Instr   begins  
      all begins by evening with me

    6. ochabl   ve   své   činnosti  
      he-grew-feeble   in   his   activity  

    7. upravíme   předpis   se   zřetelem   na   noční   přepady  
      we-shall-adjust   regulation   with   regard   to   night   assaults  
      we shall adjust the regulation with a view to the nocturnal assaults

    A list of possible Czech prepositions: (co) do, k, na, naproti, od, oproti, pro, proti, při, s, stran, u, v, vůči, ohledně, z hlediska, vzhledem k, vzhledem na, se zřetelem na, v souhlase s, v souvislosti s, ve spojitosti s, ve srovnání s

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    1. eskymácká   strava   je   biologicky   hodnotná  
      Eskimo   food   is   biologically   rich  

    2. je   to   v   podstatě   lež  
      is   it   in   essence   lie  

    3. jinak   tam   bylo   pěkně  
      otherwise   there   it-was   nice  

  3. Adverbial expressed by an infinitive

    sociologicky   vzato,   divadlo   je   soubor   lidí  
    sociologicallly   taken   theatre   is   ensemble   of-people  
    from the sociological point of view, the theatre is an ensemble of people

  4. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    co   ho   pamatuji,   byl   spořádaný   člověk  
    as   him   I-remember   he-was   decent   man  
    as far as I remember him, he was a decent man

    Conjunctions pokud and co (pokud jde o, pokud se týče) - as far as (... is concerned) are used.

Adverbial of cause

This adverbial concerns expression of stimuli, motives or causes of states and activities, obstacles or symptoms on the basis of which we infer that some action takes place.

  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun



    co   bych   se   bála  
    what-Acc   I-should   Refl   be-afraid  
    why should I be afraid


    1. rozplývá   se   štěstím  
      he-melts   Refl   happiness-Instr  
      he melts with tears of happiness

    2. nohy   mu   slabostí   klesaly  
      legs   him   weakness-Instr   were-failing  
      his legs were failing owing to weakness

    prepositional cases:

    1. na   mou   žádost   přijde  
      at   my   request   he-is-coming  

    2. muži   pili   na   zlost  
      men   were-drinking   out-of   spite  

    3. zemřel   na   cirhosu  
      he-died   of   cirrhosis  

    4. nenaříká   pro   bolest  
      he-doesn`t-moan   with   pain  

    5. pro   hru   zapomínáš   na   čas  
      for-the-sake-of   play   you-forget   on   time  

    6. zavřeli   ho   pro   potulku  
      they-arrested   him   for   vagrancy  

    7. mlčeli   ze   strachu  
      they-remained-silent   for   fear  

    8. děkuji   za   ohřátí  
      thanks   for   letting-me-warm-up  

    9. strnul   nad   tou   drzostí  
      he-stiffened   at   that   impudence  

    10. díky   péči   manželky   nezemřel  
      thanks   care   of-wife   he-did-not-die  
      he did not die owing to his wife`s care

    A list of possible Czech prepositions: na, pro, z, za, k, od, nad, po, při, skrz, v, u, následkem, v důsledku, dík (díky), kvůli, za příčinou, vzhledem k.

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    1. proč   to   děláš  
      why   it   you-do  
      why do you do it

    2. fotografování   je   z   důvodů   vojenských   zakázáno  
      photographing   is   for   reasons   military   forbidden  
      photographing is forbidden for military reasons

  3. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    je   nejlepší,   protože   je   nejhodnější  
    s/he-is   best   because   s/he-is   most-well-behaved  

    A list of possible Czech conjunctions: jak, jelikož, když (coll.), poněvadž, protože, (proto)že.

Adverbial of consequence

Consequential connection is usually expressed by parataxis (e.g., v žaludku mu kručelo, proto se najedl (his stomach was rumbling, therefore he ate his fill) or v hlavě mu zvonilo, pročež se napil (there was a buzz in his head, which is why he downed a drink)). These cases are represented as coordination (see Coordination (sentential, of sentence parts) Coord, <afun> _Co).

  1. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    správce   vám   poradí,   takže   nezabloudíte  
    keeper   you   will-advise   so-that   you-will-not-lose-way  
    the keeper will advise you, so that you do not lose your way

Hypotactical expression of consequence is less frequent; the conjunction takže (so that) is used.

Adverbial of purpose
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    1. podněcoval   je   k   hledání  
      he-instigated   them   to   search  

    2. krb   je   na   okrasu  
      hearth   is   for   show  

    3. přispěchal   na   pomoc  
      he-hurried   to   assistence  
      he hurried to assist

    4. srdce   bilo   na   poplach  
      heart   beat   to   alarm  

    5. byl   jsem   lidem   pro   smích  
      I-was   Aux   people-Dat   for   laugh  
      I became a laughingstock for the people

    6. natáhl   se   pro   čepici  
      he-reached-out   Refl   for   cap  

    7. svrchník   si   vem   pro   jistotu   také  
      overcoat   Refl   take   for   certainty   as-well  
      as a provision take the overcoat as well

    8. pobízí   matku   do   klusu  
      he-urges   mother   to   trotting  
      he is urging mother to trot

    9. od   toho   jsou   chytřejší   lidé  
      for   that   are   smarter   people  
      leave that to the smarter people

    10. vzdal   se   trůnu   ve   prospěch   své   ženy  
      he-renounced   Refl   throne   in   favour   of-his   wife  

    11. položil   bych   za   tebe   život  
      I`d-lay-down   Aux   for   you   life  
      I`d lay down my life for you

    12. honil   se   za   zvěří  
      he-hunted   Refl   for   game  

    A list of possible Czech prepositions: k, na, pro, do, od, v, za, kvůli, za příčinou, v zájmu, za účelem

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    k   tomu   účelu   dostávám   blok  
    to   that   purpose   I-get   note-book  
    I get a note-book for this purpose

  3. Adverbial expressed by an infinitive

    1. jdou   slavit   1.máj  
      they-are-going   to-celebrate   May-Day  

    2. byl   jsem   se   tam   podívat  
      I-was   Aux   Refl   there   to-have-a-look  
      I went there to have a look

    3. poslali   ho   studovat  
      they-sent   him   to-study  

  4. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. od   toho   byla   herečka,   aby   zachovala   klid  
      for   that   she-was   actress   that   she-kept   quiet  
      it was her nature of an actress to remain composed

    2. poslouchá   pozorně   jen   aby   se   zavděčil  
      he-listens   carefully   just   that   Refl   he-obliged  
      he listens carefully just to oblige

    3. odešli,   aby   se     nevrátili  
      they-went-away   that   Refl   never   they-not-return  
      they went away never to return

    4. pospěšme   si,     nás   nehledá  
      let-us-hurry-up   Refl   lest   us   s/he-not-search  
      let us hurry up lest he should be searching for us

Adverbial of condition
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    1. při   náležité   opatrnosti   se   nic   nestane  
      with   due   caution   Refl   nothing   will-not-happen  
      with due caution nothing will happen

    2. za   horka   stoupá   nárok   na   tekutiny  
      in   hot-weather   increases   demand   for   liquids  
      in hot weather the demands for liquids increase

    3. bez   pokory   není   smíru  
      without   humbleness   is-not   peace  
      there is no peace without humbleness

    4. vydám   to   jen   na   potvrzení  
      I-shall-surrender   it   only   against   receipt  
      I shall surrender it against a receipt only

    5. podle   možnosti     být   provedena   kontrola  
      according-to   possibility   should   be   carried-out   check  
      according to what is possible a check is to be carried out

    6. prohlédneme   si   s   vaším   dovolením   továrnu  
      we-will-look-at   Refl   with   your   permission   factory  
      with your permission we are going to have a look at the factory

  2. Adverbial expressed by an adverb

    obvykle   po   obědě   spává  
    usually   after   lunch   he-would-sleep  
    usually he would sleep after lunch

    Some adverbials (prostě, zkrátka - put simply, in short) represent rather a degraded parenthesis; they are marked as AuxY.

  3. Adverbial expressed by an infinitive

    1. mluveno   v   duchu   typologie   je   příslušníkem   avantgardy  
      spoken   in   spirit   of-typology   he-is   member   of-avantgarde  
      spoken in the spirit of typology he belongs to the avantgarde

    2. jde   jim   to   těžko,   soudíc   podle   vzdychání  
      is   for-them   it   hard   judged   by   sighing  
      it is hard for them, judged by their sighing

    3. být   vámi,   tak   tam   nejdu  
      to-be   you   so   there   I-wouldn`t-go  
      if I were you I wouldn`t go there

    4. kde   by   byl   nebýt   mne  
      where   would   he-was   not-to-be   me  
      where would he be if it were not for me

  4. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. jestli   tomuhle   říkáš   oddechnout,   to   tedy   promiň  
      if   this   you-call   to-rest,   then   thus   you-pardon  
      if this is what you call a rest, I do beg you pardon

    2. kdyby   měl   aspoň   volno,   všechno   by   bylo   snadné  
      if   he-had   at-least   free-day,   all   would   be   easy  
      at any rate if he had a free day, all would be easy

    A list of possible Czech conjunctions: -li, jestli(že), jak, pakli(že), když, pokud, kdyby, když(by).

Adverbial of concession
  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    1. nemohla   přes   dobré   vychování   zadržet   úsměv  
      she-could-not   despite   good   breeding   suppress   smile  
      despite her good breeding she could not suppress a smile

    2. při   vší   opatrnosti   dost   hrnců   potloukla  
      with   all   care   many   pots   she-broke  
      for all the care she broke quite a number of the pots

    A list of possible Czech prepositions: přes, při, (i) v, mimo, proti, vzdor, navzdory.

  2. Adverbial expressed by a subordinate clause

    1. třeba   to   nebyla   pravda,   přece   to   tvrdí  
      even-if   it   weren't   true   all-the-same   it   he-insists  
      even if it weren't true, he insists on it all the same

    2. i   když   jsi   ztratila   muže,   aspoň  
      even   when   Aux   you-lost   husband   at-least  
      chvíli   jsi   byla   šťastna  
      for-a-while   Aux   were   happy  
      although you have lost your husband, at least you were happy for a while

    3.   si   prší,     je   mráz,   panenka   se   směje  
      let   Refl   it-rains   let   is   frost   doll   Refl   smiles  
      may it rain, may it freeze, the doll keeps smiling

    4. nechť   třeba   běsy   viděla   jsem,   doufám  
      let   even   devils   I-saw   Aux   I-hope  
      even if I might have seen devils, I do hope

    A list of possible Czech conjunctions: třebaže, ač, ačkoliv, třeba (i), třebas, třebaže, jak, jakkoliv, přestože, (přesto)že, (i) když, (ani) když, byť (i), ať, nechť, aniž .

Adverbial of inheritance

Inheritance represents a special kind of Adv, which can be expressed by the way exemplified below only (a construction od dědečka mu zbyly knihy - from the grandfather books have been left for him - will be marked as Obj).

  1. Adverbial expressed by means of a noun


    prepositional cases:

    po   tatínkovi   mu   zbyla   řádka   knih  
    after   father   him   remained   a-number-of   books  
    after father a number of books remained for him