9.1. BEN

Definition of the functor BEN

The functor BEN (benefactor) is a functor for a free modification expressing to whose benefit or disadvantage the event expressed by the governing verb takes place.

We assign the functor BEN to modifications of several meanings:

Subfunctors. The BEN functor is further specified by subfunctors. For more on this see Section 13.1.2, "Subfunctors with the BEN functor".

BEN modifications modify verbs (e.g.: Hraje dětem.BEN divadlo. (=He plays theatre for the children.)), nouns (e.g.: přídavky na děti.BEN (=allowance for children)), and adjectives (závěry pro republiku.BEN nepřijatelné (=results unacceptable for the republic)).

Valency. BEN modifications are typically optional. They can only be considered obligatory when competing with manner modifications after certain verbs (verbs that require a modification of manner). For more on this see Section, "Competing locative/directional adjuncts (of different types)"..

Forms. The basic forms of BEN modifications are:

Dependent clause. A modification with the functor BEN is represented by a dependent clause only with the help of a supporting word; e.g.:

To je další argument proti tomu, aby mzdová regulace vůbec existovala.BEN (=That is another argument against the sheer existence of wages regulation.)

NB! We insert a node representing a modification with the BEN functor into some control constructions. For more on this see Section 2.4, "Control".

Figure 7.50. The BEN functor

The BEN functor

zakázka pro firmu (=lit. order for company)

9.1.1. Borderline cases with the BEN functor

Border with the functor ADDR. The modification with the functor BEN is semantically (as well as formally) close to the Addressee. For more on this border see Section, "The borderline between the Addressee and Beneficiary".

Border with the functor AIM. The modification with the functor BEN is semantically (as well as formally) quite close to modifications with the functor AIM (see Section 5.1, "AIM"). For more on this see Section 5.1.1, "Borderline cases with the AIM functor ".

Border with the functor REG. The BEN modification can in some cases be also similar to a modification with the meaning of regard (REG; see Section 6.8, "REG"). It concerns the cases of the so called regard dative. There are no clear criteria for distinguishing these cases but in principle we can say: if the modification has a form of the dative and is animate, the BEN functor is to be preferred. Compare:

  • Václav Karas se jim.BEN stával autoritou. (=Václav Kras was becoming an authority for them.)

For more borderline cases with the functor REG see Section 6.8.1, "Borderline cases with the REG functor".