7. Parenthesis

Parenthesis is such a sequence of words that does not belong to the basic level of the text but it rather interrupts it by inserting additional information, explanation, evaluating remarks etc. Parenthesis is usually differentiated from the basic text level by certain typographic means (dashes, brackets), and can but does not have to take part in the syntactic relations of the sentence.


10.20 Prodaná nevěsta (záznam představení divadla Drak) (=10.20 The Bartered Bride (TV recording of the performance))

Vymazal tak Holanďana Oelmana (7575 bodů) ze světových tabulek. (=He deleted Oelman (7575 points) from the tables)

Přestože byl Telegraf z českých novin duchovně snad nejvíce spjat s vládní politikou - především s ODS, nerozpakoval se ostře kritizovat některé její kroky z poslední doby. (=Although Telegraf was very closely linked to the government politics - especially ODS - ...)

On byl vždycky přísný (učitel). (=He's always been strict (as a teacher)) Fig. 6.105

Přišel tam Petr (a Pavel). (=Petr (and Pavel) came) Fig. 6.106

Parenthesis is marked in the tree with the help of the is_parenthesis attribute. All nodes representing the individual parts of a parenthesis are assigned the 1 value (in the attribute; see also Table 6.4, "Values of the is_parenthesis attribute"). The reason for marking all the parts is the so called "discontinuous, incomplete" parenthesis - these are those cases when only a part of a subtree is a (part of a) parenthesis.

Table 6.4. Values of the is_parenthesis attribute


node representing an expression that is not part of a parenthesis


node representing an expression that is part of a parenthesis

If the is_parenthesis attribute is assigned no value, the 0 value is assumed.

There are the following types of parenthesis:

Figure 6.105. Discontinuous parenthesis

Discontinuous parenthesis

On byl vždycky přísný (učitel). (=lit. He was always strict (teacher))

Figure 6.106. Discontinuous parenthesis

Discontinuous parenthesis

Přišel tam Petr (a Pavel). (=lit. Came there Petr (and Pavel))

NB! Most segments in brackets are analyzed as parentheses. An exception are cases when the brackets contain the full wording of an abbreviation, or the other way round; e.g.:

ODS (Občanská demokratická strana)

Občanská demokratická strana (ODS)

These cases are analyzed as cases of apposition. The nodes representing the expressions in brackets do not have the 1 value in the is_parenthesis attribute (see also Section 6, "Parataxis").