5.11. The dispmod grammateme (dispositional modality)

The basic values of the dispmod grammateme are represented in Table 5.12, "Values of the dispmod grammateme".

Table 5.12. Values of the dispmod grammateme


no dispositional modality


the predicate expresses dispositional modality

The dispmod grammateme is relevant for:

This grammateme is assigned to the node representing the verbal predicate (of a clause) the verbal modality of which is either ind or cdn (non-imperative forms), and expresses whether the clause expresses the so called dispositional modality.

Dispositional modality is a special type of modality capturing the relation (attitude) of the agent to the event. In Czech, this type of modality is carried by a special type of construction - its surface form has usually the following form: the reflexive passive, the manner adverbial of the type dobře, lehce, špatně (=well,easily, badly) and the dative agent, not necessarily present at the surface level. The modal (manner) adverbial may be omitted as well in exclamatory (expressive) clauses, since it can be inferred (e.g. Jemu se pracuje! (=apprx. For him it is so easy to work!).

The value disp1 is assigned to nodes representing verbal predicates of the following type:

Tato studie se studentům četla dobře. [dispmod=disp1] (=lit. This article REFL student.DAT read well; apprx. It was easy for the students to read the article)

Spalo se nám tu výborně. [dispmod=disp1] (=lit. Slept REFL us.DAT here excellently; apprx. We slept very well here)

Otherwise, the value of this grammateme is disp0.

NB! As for the nodes representing imperatives, infinitives or transgressives (gerunds), the value of the dispositional modality grammateme is nil.

For more details, see Section 6.4.3, "Values of the dispositional modality grammateme".