General rules


In the first part, Specification of parenthesis, parenthesis and its types are specified, followed (in Representation of parenthesis) by a description of its representation in the tree structure and by a short specification of the distinction between parenthesis and apposition (in The borderline between parenthesis and apposition).

The next four parts are devoted to the four types of parenthesis: Representation of AuxY_Pa deals with particles that relate to the whole sentence; An independent sentential form (containing a predicate) Pred_Pa (part Representation of Pred_Pa) describes parenthesis that includes a predicate of its own but is not syntactically incorporated into the sentence; a parenthesis that is syntactically incorporated into the sentence, be it the case that it includes a predicate (it has a form of an embedded clause) or is a simple sentence part is described in Representation of <afun>_Pa. Section Representation of ExD_Pa includes instructions for other kinds of parenthesis that are not covered by the previous sections (either a predicate is missing in the paranthesis, or it is a vocative or an independent sentence part).

Specification of parenthesis


Semantically, parenthesis concerns an additional adjunction of a remark to the statement included in the sentence. The speaker usually uses parenthesis to explain something, to add some remarks, to express his/her emotions, to apologize, to refer to something, etc.

From the formal point of view, the necessary condition for the assignement of afun with the suffix _Pa is a graphic separation marking - by brackets, dashes, commas. If this condition is not fulfilled, a different afun should be assigned. E.g. in the sentence musím se, bohužel, omluvit (I must, unfortunately, apologize) the word bohužel (unfortunately) gets afun AuxZ_Pa, while in musím se bohužel omluvit it gets afun AuxY.

There are four possible assignments of afuns, according to the following four possible types of parenthesis:

  1. If a particle without a graphic separation mark got afun AuxY, it gets - when graphically separated - AuxY_Pa (see A 'frozen' parenthesis AuxY_Pa and Particles pertaining to the whole utterance).

  2. In case parenthesis does not violate the sentence structure, it is assigned an afun composed of the value of its function in the sentence (Adv, Atr, ...) and the suffix _Pa and it is suspended in the place where it belongs (see A syntactically incorporated sentence part with <afun>_Pa).

  3. If the parenthesis has a form of a whole sentence (with a predicate) and it does not fit syntactically into the sentence structure, it gets afun Pred_Pa and it is suspended under the predicate of that clause into which it is embedded (see An independent sentential form (containing a predicate) Pred_Pa).

  4. The rest of the cases of parenthesis are assigned afun ExD_Pa (this concerns the case in which a predicate is missing and some further cases described in A syntactially non-incorporated sentence part or sentential form; ellipsis; an independent sentence part; vocative; interjection Exd_Pa).

Representation of parenthesis


The graphic symbols separating a parenthesis are sisters suspended under the governing node of the parenthesis:

  1. image

    její   (neobyčejně   vyvinutá)   ňadra  
    her   (extraordinarily   developed)   bosom  

As a rule, prepositions and subordinating conjunctions are not assigned the sufix _Pa. If they govern a parenthesis, they get their usual afun AuxP or AuxC, and the suffix _Pa is assigned to the node that is suspended on them.

  1. image

    složil     (na   chodbě)   poklonu  
    he-paid   her   (on   corridor)   compliment  

A parenthesis may consist of more than a single member; in such a case the individual parts of the parenthesis are suspended side by side and the separating symbols are daughters of the outer ones.

  1. image

    souhlasila   -   po   chvíli   váhání   jednoznačně   -   s   návrhem  
    she-agreed   -   after   moment   of-hesitation   univocally   -   with   proposal  

The borderline between parenthesis and apposition


With nouns: the condition for the assignment of apposition is the identity of the (case) forms, or abbreviations:

  1. kulhavý   ostříž   (Antonín   Vyšinka)  
    limping   lobby-falcon   (Antonín   Vyšinka)  
  2. Žižkovská   strana   starých   časů   (ŽSSČ)  
    Žižkov   party   of-old   times   (ŽSSČ)  

If the cases differ, mostly parenthesis is concerned:

  1. ve   svých   hrách   (Král   T.   a   Ráj)  
    in   his   plays-Loc   (King   T.-Nom   and   Paradise-Nom)  
  2. na   rozdíl   od   jeho   nástupce   (Vojta   Vtipný)  
    in   contrast   to   his   successor-Gen   (Vojta-Nom   Vtipný)  

As mentioned above in part Specification of apposition, in case of adverbials the condition of the identity of cases need not be obeyed, cf. the apposition relation in

  1. usmrtili   ho   tajně,   např.   vyšší   dávkou   morfia  
    they-killed   him   secretly,   e.g.   by-higher   dose   of-morphine