Auxiliary sentence members AuxC, AuxP, AuxZ, AuxO, AuxT, AuxR and AuxY

Subordinating conjunctions AuxC


In the part Definition of AuxC the information can be found as to where the subordinating conjunctions are to be placed in the tree and which conjunctions belong to this class. Consequently, a list of them has been included. As can be seen, some of the conjunctions consist of two words. The way how and where they are to be suspended in the graph are described in the part Compound (multiple element) subordinating conjunctions. Another idiosyncratic conjunction is represented by the suffix li annexed with the aid of a hyphen, to be dealt with in the part representation of the conjunction -li.

Some problems concearning the connecting (suspending) of subordinated conjunctional clauses will be touched in attachment of subordinate clauses. The reader gets acquainted with the possibility that a conjunction may depend on a preposition, as well as about divided pairs of words proto-že and přesto-že (because of, in spite of). At last, in the part An individual sentence member attached by a subordinating conjunction, it is shown that what can depend on a conjunction (i.e., what has been introduced by it) need not represent a whole subordinate clause, but be a mere independent sentence member (without representing an ellipsis handled with the aid of ExD).

Definition of AuxC


(Subordinate) clauses consist of relative and conjunctional sentences. The predicate of a relative clause depends directly on its head included in the higher sentence, and the relative word obtains its function inside its subordinate clause (ex. (2)). In a conjunctional clause, the conjunction, which is assigned afun AuxC, is placed as dependent on the head word and the predicate of the clause depends on the cojunction. Thus, the latter becomes the technically governing node of the clause (ex. (1)).

  1. image

    cítila,   jak   na   ni   jdou   mdloby  
    she-felt   as   on   her   fall   faints  
    she felt she would go off in a faint
  2. image

    nevěděla,   kdy   zmizí  
    she-did-not-know   when   she-would-disappear  

There is a number of subordinating conjunctions which we mark as AuxC. They often are ambiguous, being thus able to fulfil other functions as well. E.g., the word co (what/when) obtains AuxC in temporal meaning only (close to the conjunction když (when)), especially when following such referential expressions as poté (after), mezitím, zatím (while), or participating in a "multiple" conjunction jen co (just when).

In spite of the fact that there are also such conjunctions (e.g.aniž (without)) which can function as both subordinating (AuxC) and coordinating (Coord), the great majority of conjunctions belongs to one of the two categories only and must not be confused (for coordinating conjunctions see part Coordinating conjunctions).

A list of subordinating conjunctions AuxC: aby, , ačkoli, ačkoliv, aniž, , ať už, , byť, co, dokud, i kdyby, i když, jak, jakkoli, jakkoliv, jakmile, jako, jelikož, jen co, jestli, jestliže, kdežto, kdyby, kdykoli, kdykoliv, když, leda, ledaže, ledva, ledvaže, -li, mezitímco, nechť, než, nežli, pakli, pakliže, pokud, poněvadž, poté co, protože, přestože, sotva, sotvaže, takže, třeba, třebas, třebaže, zatímco, zda, zdali, že

Compound (multiple element) subordinating conjunctions


Most of the conjunctions consist of one word only. Nevertheless, there are also two-word conjunctions, which then take two nodes in the tree. To be able to represent them we use the function AuxY. As can be seen from the examples below, we choose one word of the two-word conjunction to take the position of the whole. This will obtain afun AuxC and it will be placed according to the above rules between the word modified by the clause and its predicate. The otgher word belonging to the conjunction will be suspended from this AuxC and marked by the mentioned afun AuxY. (This function is dealt with in the Parts of multi-word constructions, some particles, decayed parenthesis AuxY, where the part Compound subordinating conjunctions is devoted particularly to subordinating conjunctions).

In the following examples the part with afun AuxC is in emphasized:

  1. přišli,   i   když   není   středa  
    they-came   even   though   it-is-not   Wednesday  
  2. image

    sedmu   dostanu,   i   kdyby   čert   na   koze   jezdil  
    the-seven   I-will-get   even   if   devil   on   goat   would-ride  
    I shall get the seven, come hell or high water
  3. image

        se   stane   cokoli,   vyhrajeme  
    let   now   Refl   happens   whatever   we-will-win  
    whatever may happen, we shall win
  4. zařídím   to,   jen   co   se   usadím  
    I-will-manage   it   as-soon   as   Refl   I-settle-down  
    I can manage it as soon as I settle down
representation of the conjunction -li


This conjunction is placed as an independent node, as all conjunctions are. The hyphen preceding it obtains afun AuxG and it will depend directly on the node li (according to Punctuation mark with the conjunction -li (hyphen)). The word preceding the hyphen fulfils its current function in the clause. Therefore, if it represents a predicate (ex. (1)), it will depend on the conjunction, if it plays the role of another sentence member (ex. (2)), it will depend on the node where it belongs according to the rules of annotation.

  1. image

    roste-li   obvyklou   rychlostí,   nezmrzne  
    if-it-grows   at-usual   speed,   it-does-not-freeze-up  
  2. image

    obvyklou-li   roste   rychlostí,   nezmrzne  
    usual-if   it-grows   by-speed   it-will-not-freeze-up  
    if the speed of its growth is usual, it will not freeze up
attachment of subordinate clauses


If the main clause contains a 'referential word' corresponding to the attached clause, it needn t be quite clear on which node this subordinate clause (i.e., technically, the conjunction) should depend. Generally this problem is dealt with in Referring words. Here we shall touch on some problems concerning conjunctions.

If the pronoun to (it) accompanies a subordinate clause having the function Atr (according to the rules, part Referring pronoun to (that)), then the clause (its predicate) depends on to, as shown in the example (1). However, if the pronoun to accompanies a subordinate conjunctional clause (perhaps in a prepositional case, e.g. místo toho instead of it), then this pronoun functions as a referential word and is left out (and only the preposition remains in the clause). Then the subordinate clause (technically, the conjunction) can depend directly on this preposition. Its predicate, of course, obtains such an afun which would be assigned to the pronoun to, if it hadn't been left out. This case is demonstrated in the example (2).

  1. image

    místo   toho,   aby   povstal,   seděl   nečinně   dál  
    instead-of   that   that   he-got-up,   he-sat   inactively   longer  
    instead of that he would get up, he went on sitting inactively
  2. image

    místo   aby   povstal,   seděl   nečinně   dál  
    instead-of   that   he-got-up   he-sat   inactively   longer  
    instead of getting up he went on sitting inactively

As has been pointed out in the part Referring words with adverbial embedded clauses, adverbial references as well as the adverbial clauses referred to by them are placed side by side (provided the case is not that of referential to) in the tree. This holds for groupings proto, že, přesto, že, poté, co, mezitím, co, zatím, co, ..., if they are written separately in the text; on the other hand, one-word conjunctions which were derived from these collocations (protože - because, přestože - in spite of, mezitímco - in the meantime, zatímco - while,...) are handled as simple conjunctions.

  1. image

    nadával   proto,   že   dlouho   spali  
    he-was-swearing,   because   that   long   they-slept  
    he was swearing, because they had been sleeping long
  2. image

    nadával,   přesto,   že   otevřeli  
    he-was-swearing   in-spite   that   they-opened  
    he was using bad language in spite of their having opened
  3. image

    otevřeli   poté,   co   vstali  
    they-opened   after   that   they-got-up  
An individual sentence member attached by a subordinating conjunction


It may happen that a subordinating conjunction doesn t attach a subordinate clause but just an individual sentence member. This often happens with conjunctions jako and než (as, like, than), this problem being described in detail in Phrases of comparison with conjunctions jako (as), než (than). However, this can happen also with other conjunctions. A general criterion that can decide whether the case concerns a real sentence member lies in that the attached member cannot be normally expanded into a clause - nothing can be added, completed, without changing the meaning. If anything could be added, i.e., if in the place following the conjunction a complete clause might originally occur, an ellipsis must be presumed where only some member of the clause remained. This member, therefore, obtains afun ExD since a predicate is missing aa its head.

Real separate sentence members (rather than cases of deletion) attached with the aid of conjunctions (which is why they obtain some current afun, mostly Adv or Atr) can be found in the following examples:

  1. image

    chytrý,   protože   nadaný   chlapec  
    clever   since   gifted   boy  
  2. image

    mluvili   o   zajímavém,   i   když   důležitém   problému  
    they-talked   about   attractive   even   though   grave   problem  
  3. udělal   to   moudře,   protože   potichu  
    he-did   it   prudently   because   in-silence  
  4. plodná,   byť   nudná   debata  
    fruitful   though   boring   debate  

In other cases ExD will be assigned, since an ellipsis in the clause is assumed:

  1. chlapec   je   chytrý,   protože   nadaný   (= protože je nadaný)  
    boy   is   smart   since   gifted   (= because he-is gifted)  
  2. voják,   protože   v   uniformě,   zašel   za   roh  
    soldier   because   in   uniform   turned   round   corner  
    The soldier, (because) being in uniform, turned round the corner.
  3. image

    voják,   ačkoli   jen   poručík,   zmizel  
    soldier   though   only   lieutenant   disappeared  
    The soldier, though he was only a lieutenant, disappeared.

Prepositions AuxP


The section dealing with prepositions consists of two parts. The part Representation of prepositions describes how and where the classical prepositions are to be suspended in the tree. Prepositions, however, cannot be limited to the classical ones only - one-word and one-node prepositions. There are also the so-called secondary or pseudo-prepositions, which can consist of more words and take thus more nodes. How these are to be represented can be found in the part Improper prepositions.

Representation of prepositions


Prepositions are generally assigned function AuxP. Their position in the tree is above the noun they introduce. They are placed, therefore, where the noun not having any preposition would be suspended, and the noun introduced will depend on the preposition.

Prepositions AuxP are emphasized:

  1. image

    přechod   z   obrany   do   útoku  
    transition   from   defence   to   attack  
  2. image

    myslel   na   matku  
    he-thought   of   mother  
  3. image

    Theofil   dojede   do   lesa  
    Theophil   will-drive   to   wood  
Improper prepositions


Improper prepositions are regarded as prepositions and we treat them in a similar way as the classical ones. Their list is enclosed in the supplements in List of secondary prepositions.

If the secondary preposition consists in one word, no difference in representation ensues: it will depend in the same way as a primary preposition would do (see ex. (1)). Secondary prepositions, however, can consist of more words as well. In such cases the last word (node) of the preposition is taken and gets placed, as if it were a primary preposition, above the noun introduced by it. The remaining preceding nodes will depend directly on the last node all side by side. They obtain the same afun AuxP (exx. (2) and (3)). The whole secondary prepositions are emphasized:

  1. image

    jednali   ohledně   dědictví  
    they-negotiated   about   inheritance  
  2. image

    zavřeli   z   důvodu   dovolené  
    they-closed   for   reasons   of-leave  
  3. image

    křičela   bez   ohledu   na   denní   dobu  
    she-screamed   without   regard   of   day   time  

Emphasizing words AuxZ


Which words can obtain afun AuxZ, under which circumstances this is carried out and how these words behave is accounted for in the part Defining of AuxZ. The part Members modified by means of AuxZ shows where all the AuxZ can depend (what can they emphasize); several trees can be found there to illustrate some particular cases. In Multi-word emphases the case of the construction více než (more than) is dealt with, which under certain circumstances is regarded as emphasizing, and whose representation within a tree-graph is considered.

Defining of AuxZ


In a sentence, afun AuxZ is assigned to particles which fulfil the function of emphasizing a sentence member. They can emphasize almost any sentence member.

Only another AuxZ may depend on the node with afun AuxZ (in case one emphasizes the other - see Members modified by means of AuxZ), or AuxY (if a multiple-word emphasizing is the case - see Multi-word emphases).

For our purpose the words that can obtain afun AuxZ are included in a list. Words not contained there cannot be annotated in this way. In preparing this list we have relied on more sources. To Šmilauer's list further words are added, especially those regarded as emphasizing by the Academic Grammar of Czech (AM, 2, pp. 228-238, esp. 235).

The list of potential AuxZ: akorát, alespoň, ani, asi, aspoň, , celkem, dohromady, dokonce, hlavně, hned, i, jakoby, jedině, jen, jenom, ještě, již, jmenovitě, leda, málem, maximálně, minimálně, nanejvýš, například, ne, nejen, nejenže, nejméně, nejvíce, nikoliv, pak, pouze, právě, prostě, především, přesně, přímo, přinejmenším, rovněž, rovnou, skoro, sotva, taky, téměř, teprve, toliko, třeba, , vůbec, zase, zejména, zhruba, zrovna, zřejmě, zvláště

As emphasizing in some cases also constructions více než (more than) and méně než (less than) can be regarded - see Multi-word emphases.

The majority of the elements in the list consists of ambiguous words, which means that they can obtain some other afun according to context. As to the parts of speech, the Auxz words are ambiguous mostly with adverbs, but also with other parts of speech. E.g., according to SSČ:

(when, after, as far as...)

adverb, subordinating conjunction, particle

jen (only, but, hardly...)

adverb, particle, interjection

i (and, as well as, even if...)

coordinating conjunction, particle or a part of conjunctional subordinating expressions (i když, i kdyby)

The decision as to which concrete afun (AuxZ or other) to choose on the basis of context is up to the annotator. In the following examples some of the words taken from the list (emphasized) are shown in some of their functions:

  1. zvláště.AuxZ   studenti   se   výborně   projevili  
    especially   students   Refl   excellently   turned-out  
    especially the students made themselves felt in an excellent manner
  2. (hodně =) zvláště.Adv   přitažlivě   vypadá  
    (very =) especially   attractive   she-looks  
    she looks (very =) especially attractive
  3. (hodně =) zvláště.Adv   velký  
    (very =) especially   large  
  4. to   je   přímo.AuxZ   skandál  
    that   is   directly   scandal  
    that is a downright scandal
  5. cesty   vedou   přímo.Adv   i   oklikou  
    roads   lead   straight   and   round  
    the roads lead both straight and round
  6. stát   i.AuxZ   nadále   podporuje   bydlení  
    government   also   further   supports   housing-projects  
    government continues supporting the housing projects
  7. vyskytly   se   klady   i.Coord   úskalí  
    occurred   Refl   assets   and   stumbling-blocks  
    both assets and stumbling blocks occurred

In some cases not even a whole sentence suffices for univocal determination of the function. E.g., in the following sentences

  1. uzavření   dohody   bude   trvat   ještě   několik   týdnů  
    concluding   agreement   will   take   still   some   weeks  
  2. svět   zajímají   z   Minska   ponejvíce  
    world-Acc   interest   from   Minsk   mostly  
    zprávy   strategického   významu  
    news-Acc   of-strategic   importance  
    from Minsk the world is interested mostly in news of strategic importance

The emphasized words can, apart from obtaining function AuxZ, be interpreted as Adv and depend on the verb.

Members modified by means of AuxZ


In the tree structure AuxZ depends immediately on the word which is emphasized by it. Examples show emphasizing a simple noun (ex. (1)), a noun in a prepositional construction (ex. (3)), a whole noun phrase (exx. (4) and (5)), secondary prepositions (exx. (6) and (7)), numerals (ex. (8)), verb (ex. (10)), adverb (ex. (11)), adjective (ex. (12)), another emphasizing particle (ex. (13)), individual members of a coordination (ex. (14)) and subordinate clause (ex. (15)).

AuxZ is emphasized.

  1. image

    tak   smutně   vypadá   jen   poušť  
    so   sadly   looks   only   desert  
    only a desert can look as sad as that
  2. teprve   Karel   to   rozhodl  
    only   Charles   it   decided  
    it was only Charles to have decided it
  3. image

    tyto   kaktusy   rostou   jen   v   poušti  
    these   cactuses   grow   only   in   desert  
  4. image

    jen   přílišní   optimisté   vytrvali  
    only   excessive   optimists   persevered  
  5. image

    zprávy   jsou   aspoň   v   první   versi  
    news   are   at-least   in   first   version  
    the news exist at least in their first version
  6. image

    rostou   právě   uprostřed   pralesa  
    they-grow   just   in-the-midst   of-forest  
  7. image

    rostou   naprosto   nezávisle   na   pomínkách  
    they-grow   entirely   independent   of   conditions  
  8. image

    přišli   pouze   dva  
    arrived   only   two  
  9. vydrželi   jen   dva  
    endured   only   two  
  10. image

    Karel   jen   spí  
    Charles   just   sleeps  
    Charles does nothing but sleep
  11. image

    stát   i   nadále   podporuje   bydlení  
    state   also   further   supports   housing-projects  
    the government goes on supporting housing projects
  12. image

    svetr   je   pouze   zelený  
    sweater   is   only   green  
  13. image

    hlavně   ne   limonádu  
    particularly   not   lemonade  
  14. image

    cestovalo   nejen   po   republice,   ale   i   do   zahraničí  
    it-travelled   not-only   inside   republic   but   also   to   abroad  
    it was travelling not only inside the Republic but also abroad
  15. image

    vycházím   z   domu,   pouze   když   je   hezky  
    I-leave   from   house   only   when   it-is   fine-weather  

Emphasizing nouns and numerals: In positions close to a noun or to a numeral (i.e. when not introducing a clause), some words cannot obtain any other afun than AuxZ. A list of such words (a partial list of potential AuxZ) follows: akorát, alespoň (aspoň), asi, celkem, dohromady, i, málem, maximálně, minimálně, nanejvýš, nejméně, nejvíce, právě, přesně, přinejmenším, skoro, taky, téměř, zhruba

Emphasizing improper prepositions: While in emphasizing prepositional cases with "current" prepositions the emphasizing word depends on the noun, the so-called secondary prepositions (see Improper prepositions) themselves can be emphasized.

Emphasizing a verb: AuxZ can (see ex. (10)) sometimes depend on the predicate, too. This case, however, mustn t be mistaken for the occurrence of the so-called particle relating to the contents of the utterance as a whole; this particle also depends on the verb, but it obtains afun AuxY (see Particles pertaining to the whole utterance). The two examples below concern "particle pertaining to utterance" (AuxY, emphasized):

  1. patrně   se   nikdo   z   nás   nezúčastní  
    apparently   Refl   no-one   of   us   will-participate  
    apparently no one of us is going to participate
  2. máme   to   bohudík   za   sebou  
    we-have   it   thank-goodness   behind   us  
    we are through, thank goodness

Emphasizing subordinate clauses: With dependent clauses introduced by such compound conjunctions as "i když", "i kdyby" (even when, even if) emphasis is not the case. The word i represents an inseparable part of the conjunction and it obtains afun AuxY (see Compound subordinating conjunctions).

Multi-word emphases


In some cases also such constructions as "více než" a "méně než" (more than, less than) function as emphasis. It happens whenever the author infringes on syntactic relations, when the words more or less defy current treatment described in Phrases of comparison with conjunctions jako (as), než (than). They are, e.g., constructions morphologically equivalent to the example více než tisícový zástup - more than thousand-headed crowd (correctly: větší než tisícový zástup - larger than thousand-headed...).

afun AuxZ is given to více/méně; než (than) becomes dependent on it and obtains afun AuxY (which is done in agreement with the rules on afun AuxY - see Compound emphasizing particles).

  1. image

    více   než   tisícihlavý   zástup  
    more   than   thousand-headed   crowd  
  2. image

    řešení   více   než   vyhovuje   podmínkám  
    solution   more   than   fulfils   conditions  

Emotional, rhythmic particles (mi, vám, si...; to, ono) AuxO

Particle AuxO

afun AuxO are assigned to:

  1. Ethical Dative and Emotional Dative

  2. Rhythmic particles without their own syntactic function

(1) Ethical Dative fulfils the function of linking up with the addressee, i.e. resuming (maintaining) contact (to vám byla zábava; včera jsem ti nemohl usnout; on ti byl celý nesvůj = (approx.): that was an entertainment, I tell you; yesterday I couldn't fall asleep, you know; you see, he was quite beside himself). Such a contacting function can be found with the dative of interest, at times called dative of communicativeness, too (kyselina nám začíná reagovat, běží nám osmá minuta, neparkujte nám na trávě = (approx.): we have the acid starting to react, we have the 8th minute running, we don t want to have you parking on our lawn).

Emotional Dative colours utterances with emotions (to je mi pěkný pořádek, ty nám tu lenošit nebudeš = (approx.) a pretty mess it is, I say; you are not going to idle away your time here, we'll see to it). Distinguishing these types of dative is dealt with in The boundary line between free and 'bound' dative.


nemohl   jsem   ti   usnout  
I-could-not   Aux   you-Dat   fall-asleep  
I couldn't fall asleep, you see

In the form of the above mentioned datives also the reflexive particle si can occur. This then obtains afun AuxO (see the rule SI 4 in Reflexive si).


počkal   si   na    
he-waited   Refl   for   me  
he lay in wait for me, he did

(2) Some words (to it, ono that, co what,..) seem "superfluous" in some sentences. Essentially, they duplicate some other sentence member already present (functioning). This, as a rule, is a matter of emotion or rhythm. In case we find another element in the sentence seemingly fulfilling the function of these words, we denote these words as afun AuxO. This, e.g., happens even if such a word has a position similar to that of subject in a one-member sentence (to prší - what a rain).

Particles with afun AuxO are emphasized:

  1. on   tatínek   nepřišel  
    he   father   did-not-come  
    father, he failed to come
  2. to   prší  
    what   it-rains  
    what a rain
  3. image

    to   on   tatínek   nepřišel  
    what   he   father   did-not-come  
    obviously, father failed to come
  4. image

    co   je   to   filosofie  
    what   is   it   philosophy  
  5. image

    sud,   co   ho   Tonda   narazil  
    cask   that   it   Tony   tapped  
    the cask that Tony had tapped

Reflexivum tantum (se, si) AuxT

Particle AuxT

afun AuxT are assigned to the particles se, si in case the verb without them doesn't exist, as a Reflexivum tantum. This case is described by the rules SE 1 and SI 1 in Reflexive se, si ).

  1. image

    bojí   se   ho  
    he-is-afraid   Refl   of-him  
  2. image

    Franta   si   pospíšil   k   lékaři  
    Frank   Refl   hastened   to   physician  

Reflexive passive (se), AuxR

Particle AuxR

afun AuxR is assigned to the particle se if it represents a reflexive passive according to the rule SE 3 (or, as the case may be, SE 4) in Reflexive se, si).


tancovalo   se     do   rána  
it-danced   Refl   till   to   morning  
the dancing went on till morning

Parts of multi-word constructions, some particles, decayed parenthesis AuxY


There are more phenomena for which afun AuxY is used, and they are of different character. In fact, this section in its essence represents a list of different individual instances of application of this function. It is assigned to particles pertaining to the whole sentence (Particles pertaining to the whole utterance), particles introducing a loosely attached member (Particles introducing a loosely attached sentence member), a conjunction as an introducing complement or an object (The conjunction jako introducing complement or object). Also parts of different collocations, particularly of coordinating conjunctions (Particles forming a part of connecting expressions), of subordinating conjunctions (Compound subordinating conjunctions), of apposition expressions (Multi-word apposition expressions) and of emphasizing particles (Compound emphasizing particles) obtain this function. Last but not least, also parts of phrasemes dealt with in Collocations, phraseologisms (phrasemes) (here Parts of phrasemes) are denoted in this way.

Most of the parts of this section contain lists. They are lists of words which occasionally can obtain AuxY. It holds without exception that whatever is not included in these lists cannot be classed with this afun.

Particles pertaining to the whole utterance


The function AuxY is, among others, assigned to particles that pertain to the contents of the whole sentence, i.e., to those traditionally called sentence adverbs. In this respect they differ from the emphasizing particles, which can pertain to individual nouns (noun groups), numerals and adverbs, or, as the case may be, to subordinate clauses (see Emphasizing words AuxZ).

The particles cannot be identified but on the basis of contexts in which they are found. For the most part, as a matter of fact, they are ambiguous, above all with adverbs, or with conjunctions. They differ from adverbs in that they do not represent sentence members and they do not form syntagms together with other words in the sentence. They differ from conjunctions in that they do not have an independent clear-cut connecting function.

The words that can obtain afun AuxY are given by a list. This means that words which fail to appear in the list cannot figure in the role of a particle pertaining to the whole of the utterance.

These words can obtain a bare afun AuxY unless they are graphically separated in the text. In case they are separated, they obtain afun AuxY_Pa, since they represent a parenthesis. The same lists, however, hold for both the functions. The parenthesis of the type AuxY_Pa is described in A 'frozen' parenthesis AuxY_Pa.

A list of potential AuxY which pertain to the whole utterance and which are ambiguous with adverbs: asi, bohudík, bohužel, cožpak, jakoby, jasně, kupodivu, možná, nakonec, naopak, například, nesporně, nicméně, nu, nuže, opravdu, ostatně, patrně, pravděpodobně, prostě, prý, přece jen, rozhodně, samozřejmě, skutečně, snad, stejně, tak, tedy, totiž, určitě, věru, vlastně, však, zřejmě

A list of potential AuxY pertaining to the whole utterance, which are ambiguous with conjunctions: aby, , ať už, kdyby, že

In the tree structure the particle having the function AuxY depends on the predicate of the clause in question. If more words belonging together are involved (přece jen (although), ať už (be it), rather than two independent particles - například kupodivu... - for instance, strangely enough), one gets suspended from the other, the higher position taken by the first in the sequence

In the following examples the particles with the function AuxY (emphasized) are placed in the contexts of concrete sentences:

  1. dopadlo   to   bohudík   positivně  
    turned-out   it   thank-goodness   positively  
    thank goodness it turned out positively
  2. opravdu   nikdo   nepřišel  
    really   no-one   arrived  
  3. bude   to   možná   nejdůležitější   krok  
    will   it   may-be   most-important   step  
    it may be the most important step
  4. presidium   usiluje   totiž   o   tento   krok  
    board   endeavours   as-a-matter-of-fact   for   this   step  
  5. ve   městě   snad   není   volné   místo  
    in   town   perhaps   is-not   free   place  
    there may be no free place in the town
  6. v   krajích   naopak   počet   obyvatel   stagnuje  
    in   regions   on-the-contrary   number   of-inhabitants   stagnates  
  7. někteří   zřejmě   resignují  
    some   obviously   will-resign  
  8. image

    prý   nikdo   nepřišel  
    they-say   no-one   has-come  
    no one has come, they say
  9. pokud   však   obchodník   prodá   produkt,   zbohatne  
    if   however   shopkeeper   sells   product   he-gets-rich  
  10. měl   by   se   například   zabývat   právem  
    he-ought   Aux   Refl   for-instance   concern   with-law  
    he, e.g., ought to be concerned with law
  11. bohužel   se   o   tom   nevědělo  
    unfortunately   Refl   about   it   it-didn't-know  
    unfortunately, there was no idea about it
  12. předpokládaná   situace   kupodivu   nenastala  
    anticipated   situation   strangely-enough   failed-to-come-true  
  13. patrně   se   prodá   cokoli  
    apparently   Refl   sells   anything  
    apparently, anything will sell
  14. image

    Přece   jen   to   uhnilo!  
    in-the-end   even   it   rotted-away  
    it has rotted away, in the end
  15. stejně   se   nic   nezmění  
    anyway   Refl   nothing   is-going-to-change  
  16. nuže   skončeme  
    well   finished-up  
  17. vlastně   je   to   špatně  
    actually   is   it   wrong  
  18. jiné   řešení   prostě   není  
    other   solution   simply   is-not  
  19. ostatně   to   není   pravda  
    for-that-matter   it   isn   t   true  
  20. může   to   tak   tedy   zůstat  
    can   it   so   thus   remain  
    that s why it can remain like that
  21. nicméně   souhlasila   i   Lída  
    nevertheless   agreed   even   Lída  
    nevertheless, even Lída agreed
  22. pravděpodobně   to   tak   bude  
    in-all-probability   it   like-this   will-be  
  23. samozřejmě   nebyla   spokojena  
    as-a-matter-of-course   she-wasn't   satisfied  
  24. jasně   nebyla   spokojena  
    clearly   she-wasn   t   satisfied  
  25. věru   se   mi   to   nelíbí  
    certainly   Refl   me   it   does-not-please  
    certainly I do not like it
  26. nu   nic   se   nestalo  
    well   nothing   Refl   happened  
  27. nikdo   určitě   nic   nezmění  
    no-one   surely   nothing   is-going-to-change  
    surely no one is going to change anything
  28. asi   to   byla   pravda  
    perhaps   it   was   true  
    it may have been true
  29. rozhodně   to   byla   pravda  
    surely   it   was   true  
    it by all means was true
  30. nesporně   není   dobře  
    undoubtedly   it-is-not   well  
    it is beyond dispute that the times are not good
  31. skutečně   není   dobře  
    really   it-is-not   well  
    really, the times are not good
  32. nakonec   se   nic   nestalo  
    in-the-end   Refl   nothing   has-happened  
  33. jakoby   se   vypařil  
    as-if   Refl   he-had-evaporated  
  34. tak   jsme   zase   prohráli  
    so   Aux   again   we-have-lost  
  35. cožpak   jsem   králík?  
    what   am-I   rabbit?  
    what do you take me for, a rabbit?
  36.   aby   ta   zima   skončila  
    already   may   that   winter   end  
    may that winter come to an end!
  37. že   se   trochu   nestydíte  
    that   Refl   a-little   aren't-you-ashamed  
    aren't you a little ashamed, I wonder
  38. image

    Kdyby   to   byla   skutečnost!  
    may   it   were   reality  
    may it only be reality!
  39.   se   stane   cokoli  
    may   Refl   happen   anything  
  40.     se   stane   cokoli  
    may   already   Refl   happen   whatever  
    whatever may happen
Particles introducing a loosely attached sentence member


Loosely attached sentence members ( Freely adjoined sentence parts is devoted to them) are, as a rule, introduced by particles a to, a sice, a (i.e., viz., or (else)). The loosely attached sentence members (there is mostly just one, but more of them can be present as well) obtain their current afun, the placement of the particles and of comma can be seen in the examples. Commas depend on the outermost members like parenthetic punctuation (described in the part Bracketing AuxG). The particles which obtain afun AuxY depend on the first member and in case they consist of two nodes, the first node of the particle depends on the second.

The AuxY particles introducing a loosely attached sentence member are emphasized.

  1. image

    usedl,   a   to   v   rohu  
    he-sat-down   and   that   in   corner  
  2. image

    darovali   knihu,   a   sice   kupodivu   Brňanům  
    they-donated   book   and   that   surprisingly   to-Brno-people  
  3. image

    namazal   si,   a   to   včera   o   půlnoci   v   koupelně  
    he-lubricated   Refl   and   that   yesterday   at   midnight   in   bathroom  
    olejem,   kolečko   od   trakaře  
    with-oil,   wheel   of   dung-barrow  
The conjunction jako introducing complement or object


The function AuxY is also assigned to the conjunctions jako, jakožto (as) in case the nouns (or adjectives) introduced by these conjunctions play the role of a predicative complement (see Complement introduced by the conjunction jako) or of an object (see Object Obj, ObjAtr, AtrObj, esp. the part Object after copulas and semi-copulas).

To distinguish the meaning of jako as a conjunction (AuxC) from that of jako as a part of a complement (AuxY) Šmilauer recommends a simple test: If it is a complement to be attached, jako can be replaced by jakožto; e.g., in the sentence Kutná Hora byla založena jako horní osada (K.H. was founded as a mining settlement) the function is a complement, rather than a comparison - jakožto can stand in the place of jako, having the function AuxY. Cf. spí jako zabitý (sleeps as a log) - here it is a classical conjunction (expressing comparison), to be suspended in accordance to principles for AuxC. The same that holds for complement does for object, too.

The conjunctions jako, jakožto - AuxY introducing (i.e. a complement referring to an object and displaying grammatical agreement with it) depend in the tree structure on this complement/object (which has AtvV/Obj) as its daughter nodes.

  1. image

    odmítl   nabídku   jako   málo   atraktivní  
    he-refused   offer   as   a-little   attractive  
  2. image

    jakožto   politický   činitel   prosadil   kampaň  
    as   political   authority   he-pushed-through   campaign  
  3. image

    připadá   mi   to   jako   neskutečné  
    occurs   to-me   it   as   illusory  
    it occurs to me as illusory
Particles forming a part of connecting expressions


The function AuxY belongs also to particles which figure as parts of expressions introducing coordination, partly as compound classical conjunctions (part Multiple coordinating expressions), partly as some expressions that currently close the coordination (part Non-standard termination of a coordinated list).

A list of compound coordinating conjunctions: (Parts with afun AuxY are emphasized.)

a proto
a přesto
proto ale
přesto ale
a tak
a tedy
a tudíž
a tím
ale zato
sice ... ale


sice ... avšak
sice ... nicméně
ani ... ani
i ... i
jednak ... jednak
jak ... tak
buď ... nebo
buď ... anebo
buď ... a nebo

In the case of "separate" expressions (of the type ani ... ani, buď ... anebo, sice ... ale (neither ... nor, either ... or, though ... but), etc.) we regard the second part as the bearer of a connecting relationship. The first component obtains afun AuxY.

The particles with the function AuxY forming a part of the connecting expression depends on the pertinent conjunction in the tree structure (side by side).

A list of current but non-standard closing elements of coordination: The parts with afun AuxY are emphasized


a tak dále (and so on)
a tak podobně (and similarly on)
a podobně (and similarly)
et cetera (etc.)

From the coordination conjunction (which is to control the whole coordination) the remaining words will be suspended and they obtain afun AuxY. If there are two such words, the first depends on the second.

Compound subordinating conjunctions


Subordinating conjunctions (AuxC) can consist of more elements (see Compound (multiple element) subordinating conjunctions). Mind, however, mistaking them for mere emphasizing a subordinate clause. If a subordinate clause is introduced by pouze když (only if), the conjunction is když while the pouze plays the emphasizing role only (see Members modified by means of AuxZ). On the other hand, the conjunctions contained in the list are inseparable.

A list of compound subordinating conjunctions: AuxY dependent on the second element having afun AuxC are emphasized.

  1. přišli,   i   když   není   středa  
    they-came   even   when   it-isn't   Wednesday  
    they have come though it isn't Wednesday
  2. image

    sedmu   dostanu,   i   kdyby   čert   na   koze   jezdil  
    seven   I-shall-get,   even   if   devil   on   goat   rode  
    I shall get the seven, come hell or high water
  3. image

        se   stane   cokoli,   vyhrajeme  
    let   already   Refl   happens   whatever   we-shall-win  
    whatever may happen, we shall win
  4. zařídím   to,   jen   co   se   usadím  
    I-will-do   it   as-soon-as   what   Refl   I-settle-down  
    I'll manage as soon as I settle down
Multi-word apposition expressions


If the expression introducing apposition consists of more elements, it is the last word in the series that becomes the governing node with afun Apos. The remaining members depend on it and obtain afun AuxY. The particle with afun AuxY is emphasized.


stanovil   symboly,   a   to   znak   a   prapor  
he-designated   symbols,   and   that   emblem   and   banner  

Apposition can be introduced by one of the following multi-word expressions:

a sice (that is), a tedy (and thus), a to (that is), jako je (that is, with a form of the verb be), jako například (as for instance), tak třeba (as for instance), to jest (that is), to znamená (that is)
Compound emphasizing particles


Emphasizing particles are usually one-word elements (see Defining of AuxZ). Exceptions are represented by such groups as "více než" a "méně než" (more than, less than) which under certain circumstances (infringement of syntactic rules - see Multi-word emphases) can be represented as two-word emphasizing expressions. The word než then obtains afun AuxY and depends on the second node, which is assigned AuxZ.


více   než   tisdícihlavý   zástup  
more   than   thousand-headed   crowd  
Parts of phrasemes


All elements participating in various phrasemes obtain afun AuxY. This problem is dealt with in Collocations, phraseologisms (phrasemes).


noc   co   noc   flámoval  
night   after   night   he-spent-on-a-spree