Relations between sentences and sentence parts (other than dependency)

Coordination (sentential, of sentence parts) Coord, <afun> _Co


Part Specification of coordination specifies what is understood by coordination here; its representation in our annotation scheme is presented in a voluminous part Treatment of coordination, which is subdivided into several subparts. Cases of multiple coordination are dealt with in part Multiple coordination. Coordinated constructions often end by words implicating that the list is not complete (aj. etc.); these cases are described in part Non-standard termination of a coordinated list. The "false" relative clauses (introduced by což) are discussed in Coordination in sentences with což (which), přičemž (whilst). In Coordinating conjunctions we present a list of coordinating conjunctions, followed by instructions what to do with such conjunctions that consist in more than one word (Multiple coordinating expressions). Coordination may go beyond the boundary of sentences; these cases are exemplified in One-member sentential coordination. Some special case of coordination are discussed in part Coordination with a colon and Compound words divided by a hyphen.

The next part is devoted to the issue of coordination of prepositional cases (Coordinated prepositional cases) and embedded clauses (Coordination of embedded clauses). The suffix _Co is not assigned to prepositions or to subordinate conjunctions.

A special problem is that of modification of coordination; the instructions how to represent such cases are given in the concluding part Joint modification of coordinated members.

Specification of coordination


A relation of coordination may occur between two or more sentence parts, two or more clauses - be they main clauses or dependent ones. On the analytical level, coordination of clauses and of words is not distinguished, both are assigned the same analytic function. Similarly, we do not distinguish between different types of coordination (conjunction, disjunction, etc.); they all get the same afun without any further specification.

Any sentence members can be related by coordination: predicates, subjects, objects, attributes etc. Their afun is composed of their function - Pred, Sb, Obj, Atr - and a suffix _Co, which indicates that the given node is a member of a coordinated construction.

It is important to ensure that all members standing in a coordinated construction get the same function (e.g. it is impossible to have Obj_Co and Adv_Co standing side by side in a single coordinated construction). If such a case seemingly occurs, then the construction should be treated as a sentential coordination with a deleted predicate in one of its parts. This is most frequently the case with the combination of Adv - Pnom and Atv - Adv:

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    Přišel   sám   a   hned.  
    he-came   alone   and   immediately.  

Treatment of coordination


The means of rendering coordination are first of all coordinating conjunctions, connecting expressions and also punctuation marks, e.g. a comma. The cases when coordination is expressed by means of multiword expressions is described in part Multiple coordinating expressions. In the tree structure, these means have a node of their own assigned afun Coord. They are the governing node of the whole coordinated string.

In case of coordinated predicates of main clauses the node with afun Coord is suspended immediately below the node of the root of the tree ((1)). In other cases, the node with afun Coord is suspended on the governing node, which is modified by the nodes in coordination ((2)).

If there are some extra marks with individual parts of coordination, they are assigned afun AuxG and are suspended on the corresponding parts ((3); see also A superfluous punctuation mark (three dots)).

It may happen that the conjunction a (and) is a part of some abbreviation (apod. and similarly, atd etc.). Since the abbreviation is written without spaces and as such is represented by a single node, the function Coord is assumed by the whole abbreviation (see (4)). For the treatment of these abbreviations if written in several words, see below part Non-standard termination of a coordinated list.

Coordination function can be represented in the sentence also by three fullstops. If this is the case, the afun Coord is assigned to the last of them; the preceding two are suspended on the last one and are assigned AuxG ((5)).

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    Později   utekl   z   vězení   a   opustil   republiku  
    later   he-fled   from   prison   and   left   Repulic  
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    vláda   minulá   nebo   současná  
    government   past   or   present  
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    uzrály   a)   švestky,   b)   meruňky  
    ripened   a)   plums   b)   apricots  
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    četla   časopisy,   noviny   apod.  
    she-read   journals   newspapers   and-similarly  
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    očekávám   Tondu,   Karla,   Frantu   ...  
    I-expect   Tony   Charles   Frank   ...  
Multiple coordination


With a multiple coordination (i.e. the coordination construction has more than two members), more than one marker of coordination is usually present (every two members of the coordination are delimited by some marker). The afun Coord is then assigned to the last marker at the right-hand-side (usually this is a conjunction, but if a conjunction is not present then it might be a comma etc.). This mark of coordination becomes the governor, other coordination marks being its daughters. Commas are asigned afun AuxX, words (e.g. the repeated conjunctions a (and)) get AuxY, graphic symbols (e.g. also all three dots if they are not rightmost nodes) are assigned afun AuxG.

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    ptali   se   na   mámu,   tátu,   psa   a   včerejší   počasí  
    they-inquired   Refl   about   mom,   pap,   dog   and   yesterday   weather  
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    Karel,   Bohouš   a   Venca   jedli  
    Karel,   Bohouš   and   Venca   were-eating  
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    ...   zaplatili:   Bohouš,   Venca   ...   Karel   a   Oskar  
    ...   payed:   Bohouš,   Venca   ...   Karel   and   Oskar  
Non-standard termination of a coordinated list


The list of the members of coordination is sometimes terminated by words that do not have the same syntactic value as other members of the coordination. These words mostly express that the listing is incomplete and they are often written in an abbreviated form; if this abbreviation is represented by a single node including also the coordinating conjunction (apod., atd., etc., aj., … (and-so-on)), it becomes (in accordance with the rules in the part Treatment of coordination) a node of coordination, i.e. it is assigned afun Coord.


jmenujme   pole,   lesy,   budovy   aj.  
let-us-mention   fields,   woods,   buildings   etc.  

However, difficulties arise when the coordinated listing is terminated by more than one node. One of the following three cases may obtain then:

Cases of collocation:

The list of such collocations:

a tak dále (and so on)
a tak podobně (and so similarly)
a podobně (and similarly)
et cetera

These collocations are regarded as so-called connecting coordinating expressions, described in more detail below in the part Particles forming a part of connecting expressions and comprising also (or first of all) multiple conjunctions described in part Multiple coordinating expressions.

In the representations of these constructions, the coordinating conjunction governs the whole coordination and the other nodes are suspended on it with afuns AuxY; if such constructions consist of two words, the last word is suspended on the first one ((2)).

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    jmenujme   pole,   lesy,   budovy   et   cetera  
    let-us-mention   fields,   woods,   buildings   et   cetera  
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    jmenujme   pole,   lesy,   budovy   a   tak   dále  
    let-us-mention   fields,   woods,   buildings   and   so   on  

Cases of ellipsis in which after the last member of coordination there remains just an adjective (i.e. the adjunct of the last word)

Annotation is carried out according to the rules on ellipsis (see Ellipsis ExD, ExD_Co), i.e. the adjective (which is a remnant of the last member of coordination) is suspended on the node with Coord and is assigned afun ExD_Co.

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    jmenujme   pole,   lesy,   budovy   a   jiné  
    let-us-mention   fields,   woods,   buildings   and   other  
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    jmenujme   Pepu,   Aloise,   Antonína   a   další  
    let-us-mention   Pepa,   Alois,   Antonín   and   further  

Other cases (mostly lists with longer terminations)

In these cases the rule given above in the part Specification of coordination is used; the respective termination of the list is regarded as a clause of itself (which often does not contain a predicate), resulting in a coordination of clauses, where in the first clause the initial members of the listing will be placed in their corresponding positions and the second clause will be formed in a non-standard way.

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    Jmenujme   pole,   lesy,   budovy   a   tak   dále  
    let-us-mention   fields,   woods,   buildings   and   so   on  
      do   úplného   vyčerpání.  
    up   to   full   exhaustive-account.  
Coordination in sentences with což (which), přičemž (whilst)


Complex sentences with expressions což (which) (and all its inflected forms, including the forms with prepositions přičemž, pročež, načež, nacož) are analyzed as coordination, the head node being the comma. These words are assigned afuns according to the function they represent in the clause they introduce (přičemž (whilst) obtaining mostly the afun Adv).

  1. My   tam   nemůžeme,   přičemž   opačná   cesta   je   volná  
    we   there   are-not-allowed   while   opposite   direction   is   free  
  2. Je   označována   za   kubismus,   což   je   ignorantství  
    it-is   denoted   as   cubism   which   is   ignorance  
Coordinating conjunctions


The following conjunctions (some of them consisting of more than a single word) may have a coordinating function:

a, a proto, a přesto, a tak, a tedy, ale, ale proto, ale přesto, anebo, ani, ani-ani, aniž, avšak, ba, buď-a nebo, buď-anebo, buď-nebo, či, i, i-i, jak-tak, jednak-jednak, jenže, leč, nebo, neboť, nicméně, nýbrž, ovšem, proto, přece, přesto, sice-ale, sice-avšak, sice-nicméně, však, vždyť, zato

The conjunction aniž may in a sense function also as a subordinating one (AuxC), the conjunction přece may occur in the function of AuxY, the conjunction ani has often an empasizing meaning (AuxZ).

Instructions how to treat conjunctions included in the above list are presented in the next section Multiple coordinating expressions.

Multiple coordinating expressions


Some expressions introducing coordination (and as such included in the above list) consist in more than a single word. This means that they are represented in the tree as more than a single node; however, for the overall representation of the coordinating function a single node is needed, to be assigned afun Coord. This is why one word of the coordinating expression is singled out to get Coord and to be the head of the whole coordination. Other parts of the coordinating expression are suspended under this main node (if there are more such words, they are suspended as sisters) and they are assigned afun AuxY.

Instructions how to choose the main node are given in part Parts of multi-word constructions, some particles, decayed parenthesis AuxY. With those components that are not immediate neighbours (e.g. sice-ale that's-true - but), as well as with those that are immediate neighbours (e.g. ale proto but therefore) the head node usually is the node with a more general coordinative meaning (ale but, a and).

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    Vyhnali   ho,   ale   proto   se   nemusíš   zlobit  
    they-expelled   him   but   therefore   Refl   you-need-not   be-angry  
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    Šel   sice   pryč,   ale   darebákem   zůstane  
    he-went   that's-true   away   but   rascal   he-remains  
One-member sentential coordination


Afun Coord is often assigned also to conjunctions that refer to the preceding context, which is outside the sentence under analysis. Since in our annotation scheme the analysis should not go beyond the boundaries of sentences, such a coordination physically has a single node in the given tree.

  1. a   tak   nedosáhli   slibovaného   vzestupu  
    and   so   they-did-not-reach   promised   raise  
    and that's why they failed
  2. ale   všechny   lidi   oklamat   nejde  
    but   all   people   to-deceive   it-is-not-possible  
    but to decieve all people is impossible
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    Avšak   převážila   tendence   jiná  
    yet   prevailed   tendency   other  
    Yet another tendecny prevailed.
Coordination with a colon


Afun Coord is also used in representation of sport results and temporal data.

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    Viktorka   vyhrála   3:0  
    Viktorka   won   3:0  
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    zápas   začíná   v   10:15  
    match   starts   at   10:15  
Compound words divided by a hyphen


Compound words divided by a hyphen are represented as a coordination.


česko-německé   vztahy  
Czech-German   relations  

Coordinated members introduced by means of AuxP or AuxC


Analytic functions AuxP_Co and AuxC_Co are not used. The suffix _Co is attached to the sentence parts introduced by these members.

Coordinated prepositional cases


The suffix _Co is not attached to prepositions. In case of coordinated prepositional cases, the suffix Co_ is attached to the afun of the noun, i.e. Obj_Co, Adv_Co, Atr_Co rather than AuxP_Co.

Coordinated sentence parts expressed by a prepositional form are represented in different ways, in relation to the fact whether the prepositon is present with both coordinated parts or if there is only a single preposition present.

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    přijíždějí   ze   Slovenska   a   z   východních   zemí  
    they-come   from   Slovakia   and   from   Eastern   countries  
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    působí   v   Gaze   a   Jerichu  
    s/he-operates   in   Gaza   and   Jericho  

It may happen that one of the coordinated members is missing (there are only two prepositions in coordination and only the second of them is accompanied by a noun):

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    šel   do   i   z   lesa  
    he-walked   to   and   from   woods  
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    šel   především   do,   ale   i   z   lesa  
    he-walked   first-of-all   to   but   also   from   woods  
Coordination of embedded clauses


Coordination of embedded clauses is treated in a similar vein as that of prepositional cases. The sufix _Co is assigned to the afuns of the predicates of these clauses (i.e. Sb-Co, Obj_Co, Adv_Co, ...) rather than to the subordinating conjunctions.

The treatment of coordinated clauses depends on the fact whether the subordinating conjunction is repeated or not.

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    slíbil,   že   knihu   koupí   a   že   přítele   navštíví  
    he-promised   that   book-Acc   he-will-buy   and   that   friend-Acc   he-will-visit  
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    slíbil,   že   knihu   koupí   a   přítele   navštíví  
    he-promised   that   book-Acc   he-will-buy   and   friend-Acc   he-will-visit  
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    šel,   protože   a   poněvadž   chtěl  
    he-went   because   and   since   he-wanted  
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    šel,   především   protože,   ale   i   poněvadž   chtěl  
    he-went   first-of-all   because   and   also   since   he-wanted  

Joint modification of coordinated members


A joint modification of a coordinated string must be reflected also in its tree structure. The same rules obtain for the assignment of afuns in case of coordination of sentence parts and in that of coordination of predicates (i.e. of main or embedded clauses).

Those elements of the sentence that depend only on one part of the coordination are suspended according to the general rules; those elements that depend on the coordinated construction as a whole are suspended on the node with afun Coord and are assigned their afuns according to their function (without the sufix _Co). This convention makes it possible to diferentiate between a coordinated member and a member modifying the whole coordination. The latter node may be e.g. a joint attribute to a coordinated object, but also a joint subject or other modification to a coordinated predicate.

The members modifying the coordination as a whole are printed in emphasized letters.

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    dělníci   nainstalovali   dřevěné   židle   a   stojany  
    workers   installed   wooden   chairs   and   stands  
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    Jana   zvedla   a   podala   Olze   knížku  
    Jane   picked-up   and   handed-over   to-Olga   book  
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    velmi   těžký   a   rozměrný   fragment  
    very   heavy   and   bulky   fragment  
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    lidé   ovdoví,   ztratí   partnera   a   přežívají   opuštěni  
    people   become-widowed   lose   partner   and   survive   lonesome