Referring words

Referring pronoun to (that)

The referring pronoun to (that, it) at the beginning of an embedded clause is assigned the respective function it subsumes in the governing clause, the embedded clause gets afun Atr and it is suspended on to, without regard to the "direction" (forward - to an embedded clause, or backward - to a person/event) of the coreference. The embedded clause may be introduced by a conjunction (že that, aby in order to, zda whether) or it may be a relative clause.

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    je   to   tím,   že   trucuje  
    is   it   by-it   that   s/he-is-in-the-sulks  
    this is because s/he is in a fit of the sulks
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    to,   co   zažil,   ho   zničilo  
    it   what   he-experienced   him   destroyed  
    what he had experienced destroyed him
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    mluvila   s   tím,   koho   potkala  
    she-spoke   with   that   whom   she-met  
    she was speking with whom she met
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    čím   déle   přemýšlel,   tím   méně   věděl  
    what-Instr   longer   he-reflected   that-Instr   less   he-knew  
    the longer he reflected, the less he knew
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    čím   je   starší,   tím   je   zkušenější  
    what-Instr   s/he-is   older   that-Instr   s/he-is   more-experienced  
    the older, the more experienced he is
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    vrávolal   čím   dál   tím   více  
    he-tottered   what-Instr   longer   that-Instr   more  
    he tottered more and more

Cases with an infinitive in place of an embedded clause are treated in a similar way.


snil   o   tom   žít   u   moře  
he-dreamt   about   that   to-live   by   sea  
he dreamt (that) he was living by the sea

With some prepositions, the pronoun to (that should follow them) is deleted and an embedded clause follows immediately. This clause is suspended under the preposition and takes over the afun that would be assigned to to.

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    místo   toho,   aby   povstal,   seděl   nečinně   dál  
    instead   of-that   so-that   he-got-up   he-was-sitting   idly   further  
    instead of standing up he went on sitting idly
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    místo,   aby   povstal,   seděl   nečinně   dál  
    instead   so-that   he-got-up   he-was-sitting   idly   further  
    instead of standing up he went on sitting idly

If only some of the members of the embedded clause remain(s) after deletion of the rest, it is assigned afun ExD (to indicate that the predicate is missing). It is, however, necessary to distinguish between cases of deletion (in which an element is left behind) as in examples (1) and (2) below, and those of prepositional cases: in (3) the form (the Instrument case) of the word pivo (beer) is determined by the preposition místo (instead of), the whole construction is an Adv and there is no referring to missing.

  1. místo   ve   středu   chodil   ve   čtvrtek  
    instead-of   on   Wednesdays   he-used-to-come   on   Thursdays  
  2. místo   pivem   ho   polil   mlékem  
    instead-of   by-beer   him   he-poured   by-milk  
    instead of beer he poured milk on him
  3. místo   piva   ustrkávala   vínečko  
    instead-of   beer   she-sipped   wine  

Referring words with adverbial embedded clauses

An embedded clause may be introduced by such expressions as tak (so), (do)tehdy (until), tolik (so much), poté/mezitím/zatím, co/když/jak (after/in between/still when/what/how), odtud,kam/odkud/kde (from where, where), proto/přesto, že (because/though that). Bothe the referring word and the embedded clauses are suspended side by side and are assigned afun Adv.

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    je   to   tak,   že   nespím  
    is   it   so   that   I-do-not-sleep  
    the thing is that I can't sleep
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    pracuji   tak,   jak   to   umím  
    I-work   so   as   it   I-can  
    I'm working the way I know
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    přijedu   tehdy,     to   dopíšu  
    I-will-arrive   then   when   it   I-finish-writing  
    I shall come after I finish writing it
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    otevřeli   poté,   co   vstali  
    they-opened   after-that   when   they-got-up  
    they have openened after they got up
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    nadával   proto,   že   dlouho   spali  
    he-sweared   because   that   long   they-slept  
    he used bad language because they were sleeping long
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    nadával   přesto,   že   otevřeli  
    he-sweared   although   that   they-opened  
    he used bad language although they had opened

Referring takový (such)

If the word takový (such) is placed immediately before an embedded clause, it is assigned the respective function it would have within the main clause (Pnom, Atr, Atv) and the embedded clause is suspended on this word with afun Adv.


If the word takový is not immediately followed by a comma, it itself is an Atr and the embedded clause is either an Atr depending on the noun modified by takový, or it has its usual function determined by the verb (of the main clause) on which it is suspended.

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    on   je   vedoucí   takový,   že   jim   závidíme  
    he   is   manager   such   that   them   we-envy  
    he is such a manager that we envy them
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    jejich   vedoucí   je   takový,   že   jim   závidíme  
    their   manager   is   such   that   them   we-envy  
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    vedoucího   nám   přidělili   takového,   jaký   se   jim   hodil  
    manager   to-us   they-appointed   such   as   Refl   them   suited  
    they have appointed to us a manager which suited them