TSIN functor (temporal: since when) is a functor for a free modification that expresses specification of time answering the question "since when?".
A modification with the
TSIN functor expresses the beginning of the event expressed by the governing word, either by direct specification of the moment (od pěti hodin (=lit. since five o'clock), odedneška (=since today)), or by specifying the temporal relation to another event (od příjezdu (=lit. since (the) arrival), od snídaně (=lit. since breakfast)).
Forms. The basic forms of
TSIN modifications are:
The most common forms:
|od+2||Expozice je od včerejška otevřena v pražském Centru nezávislé žurnalistiky. (=The exposition has been open since yesterday in Prague Center of Independent Journalism.)|
|počínaje+7||Počínaje snídaní nic nejedl. (=He has not eaten since breakfast.)|
TSIN nepršelo. (=lit. Since Saturday (it) has_not rained.) Fig. 7.17
Znají se odedávna.
TSIN (=lit. (They) know each_other for_ages.)
TSIN jsem neměl rád tohle město. (=lit. Since_ever (I) - do_not_like this town.)
TSIN se znáte?(=lit. Since_when each_other have_you_known?)
TSIN už nic nejedl.(=lit. Since_yesterday (he) - anything has_not_eaten.)
The most common forms:
|co||Co jsem skončil školu, hledám práci. (=Since I finished school I have been looking for a job.)|
TSIN , je tu klid. (=lit. Since (they) left (it) has_been here calm.) Fig. 7.18
NB! A modification with the
TSIN functor is only rarely expressed by a dependent clause. A similar temporal modification modifying a noun can, however, be expressed by a dependent clause (its effective root node is assigned the
RSTR functor); e.g.:
Od toho okamžiku.
TSIN , co jsem ho spatřil.
RSTR , jsem věděl, že je to on. (=lit. From the moment when (I) - him saw (I) - knew that was it him.)
TSIN , kdy jsem ho navštívil.
RSTR , uplynulo několik dní. (=lit. Since (the) time when (I) - him visited have_passed several days.)
Figure 7.18. The
Co odešli, je tu klid. (=lit. Since (they) left (it) has_been here calm.)
Border with the
TFRWH functor. The
TSIN functor is close to the temporal modifications the meaning of which is "from when?" (
TFRWH; see Section 3.3, "TFRWH"). However, the distinction between these two functors in a particular context is usually unambiguous. A modification with the
TSIN functor always expresses the beginning (of the duration) of the governing event., i.e. the beginning of an interval; the
TFRWH functor, on the other hand, has nothing to do with duration or intervals, it only localizes another modification in a moment in the past. Cf.:
Od minulého roku.
TSIN už nepracuji. (=lit. Since last year (I) have_not_worked.)
TSIN (= lit.(He) has_been_working since_yesterday.)
vstupenka z pondělí.
TFRWH (=lit. (a) ticket from Monday)
Zápisy jsou odvčera.
TFRWH (=lit. Registration has_been_running since_yesterday.)
Z minulého roku.
TFRWH si nic nepamatuji (=lit. From (the) last year (I) - anything cannot_remember.)
nevykonaná práce od minulého pondělí.
TFRWH (=lit. that_has_not_been_done work since last Monday)
Borders with other functors. Due to the identity in form, the
TSIN functor can also border on functors for other than temporal modifications. However, in a particular context the choice of the functor is usually unambiguous. Cf.:
Od snídaně mě bolí zuby. (=Since breakfast I have had a toothache.)
The modification od snídaně (=since breakfast) can express the moment when the toothache started (then it is assigned the
TSIN functor), in a different context, however, (e.g. I had something sweet for breakfast and it makes my teeth ache) the modification od snídaně (=since breakfast) can be assigned the
CAUS functor, too.