Quasi-modal predicates and quasi-phase predicates are defined as combinations of a quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb (expressing the grammatical and modal or phase meanings) with a substantive infinitive verb carrying the main lexical meaning of the predicate.
Complex expressions synonymous with modal or phase verbs are represented as quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs (see Section 9.2.1, "Quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs").
modal predicate → quasi-modal predicate:
muset odejít (=to have to leave) → mít povinnost odejít (=to have the obligation to leave),
chtít pracovat (=to want to work) → mít záměr pracovat (=to have the intention of working),
moci studovat (=to be able to study) → být schopen studovat (=to be capable of studying).
phase predicate → quasi-phase predicate:
začít pracovat (=to start working) → dostat chuť pracovat (=to get an appetite to work),
přestat pracovat (=to stop working) → přijít o možnost pracovat (=to lose an opportunity to work).
A quasi-modal or quasi-phase predicate is formed by:
a quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb,
a substantive infinitive verb.
The substantive infinitive verb may also be nominalised and the main lexical meaning of the predicate is then expressed by a noun (frequently in the prepositional phrase). Cf:
začít pracovat (=to start work) → dostat chuť pracovat (=to get an appetite to work) → dostat chuť k práci (=to get an appetite for work).
Consequently, quasi-modal and quasi-phase predicates are represented as three separate nodes. Quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs are represented, as a rule, as a complex predicate (by the functor
CPHR; see Section 9.3, "Complex predicates").
The substantive infinitive verb (or its nominalisation) is usually a valency modification of the non-verbal part of the quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb, and so it is usually represented by a node dependent on the node with the functor
CPHR and it has the functor of one of the arguments.
The fact that all the three components of the predicate belong together is not expressly reflected, nor is the infinitive assigned any deontic modality grammateme (see Section 5.10, "The
deontmod grammateme (deontic modality)").
CPHR odejít. (=He has an obligation to leave.) Fig. 6.155
CPHR pracovat. (=He got an appetite to work) Fig. 6.156
Figure 6.156. Quasi-phase predicate
Dostal chuť pracovat na projektu. (=lit. (He) got (an) appetite to_work on (the) project.)
Quasi-modal verbs are multi-word expressions synonymous with modal verbs, employing a semantically empty verb to express in particular the grammatical meanings of the clause, and a noun (or an adverb) to carry the modal meaning of the phrase.
modal verb → quasi-modal verb:
moci (=to be able) → mít možnost (=to have the opportunity),
chtít (=to want) → mít chuť (=to have an appetite).
With quasi-modal verbs it is possible to add to the meaning of modality ("adding a layer") the further meaning of phasality. Such complex verbal-nominal (or verbal-adverbial) collocations are then represented as quasi-phase verbs. What is important is that verbs forming the verbal component of quasi-phase verbs acquire phasal meaning only in a verbal-nominal collocation. This newly acquired phasal meaning is distinguished from their original, "non-empty" meaning.
Quasi-modal verbs may be considered as quasi-phase verbs with the phase of progress of the event. Cf. examples of quasi-phase verbs indicating two further phases: start and end of an event:
quasi-modal/quasi-phase verb for the phase of progress → quasi-phase verb for the start or end phase of an event:
mít možnost (=to have the opportunity) → přijít o možnost (=to lose the opportunity),
mít chuť (=to have an appetite) → dostat chuť (=to get the appetite).
The linking of modal and phase meaning makes it difficult to find an adequate one-word synonymous term for quasi-phase verbs.
A quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb is formed by:
The verbal component is defined as the governing verb, which is semantically empty.
The non-verbal component is defined as the dependent noun or adverb carrying the modal or phase meaning of the phrase.
According to the means of expression of the verbal and non-verbal components, three groups of quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs are identified, distinguished in the annotation rather due to the fact that the annotation rules developed gradually than to satisfy a need to distinguish these groups. These are:
a quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb whose verbal component is not formed by the verb "být (=to be)" and whose non-verbal component is formed by a noun.
mít schopnost (=to have the ability)
mít chuť (=to have an appetite)
mít potřebu (=to have a need)
mít šanci (=to have a chance)
mít plán (=to have a plan)
mít tendenci (=to have a tendency)
dát se do práce (=to get down to work)
dostat chuť (=to get an appetite)
dostat nápad (=to get an idea)
nabízí se možnost (=an opportunity presents itself)
pocítit potřebu (=to feel a need)
pojmout podezření (=to become suspicious)
sbírat odvahu (=to summon up courage)
vzbudit touhu (=to arouse a desire)
nenáleží (mu) právo (=(he) does not have the right)
nepřísluší (mu) oprávnění (=(he) has no justification)
pozbýt odvahu (=to lose courage)
přijít o možnost (=to lose the opportunity)
zaniká povinnost (=the obligation expires)
ztratit chuť (=to lose the appetite)
ztratit možnost (=to lose the opportunity)
This group of quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs is represented by applying the same rules as for complex predicates (the group is defined as a sub-type of complex predicates): the nonverbal component (a noun) is represented by a node with the functor
CPHR (on annotation rules for complex predicates see Section 9.3, "Complex predicates").
a quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb whose verbal component is formed by the verb "být (=to be)" and whose non-verbal component is formed by a modal adjective or noun.
být schopen (=to be capable)
být povinen (=to be obliged)
být nutné (=to be necessary)
být možné (=to be possible)
být povinností (=to be an obligation)
být nutnost (=to be a necessity)
This group of quasi-modal (or quasi-phase) verbs is represented by applying the same rules as for verbonominal predicates. The non-verbal component (a noun or an adjective) is represented by a node with the functor
PAT (on annotation rules for verbonominal predicates see Section 2.1.3, "Copula "být" (verbonominal predicate)").
a quasi-modal or quasi-phase verb whose verbal component is formed by the verb "být (=to be)" and whose non-verbal component is formed by a predicative modal adverb.
být možno (=to be possible)
být nutno (=to be necessary)
být třeba (=to be necessary)
For the annotation of this group of quasi-modal (or quasi-phase) verbs the previously introduced functor
CPHR has been used and for predicates formed by these quasi-modal verbs specific valency frames have been established - see Section 2.1.3, "Copula "být" (verbonominal predicate)".
Quasi-modal and quasi-phase verbs are frequently complex control predicates (see Section 2.4, "Control"; for group a) see also Section 184.108.40.206, "Infinitive dependent on the nominal part of a complex control predicate"; for group b) see also Section 220.127.116.11, "Infinitive dependent on the verbal part of a verbonominal control predicate" ; for group c) see also Section 18.104.22.168.6, ""Být" + predicative adverb").