5.6. The indeftype grammateme

The basic values of the indeftype grammateme are presented in Table 5.7, "Values of the indeftype grammateme".

Table 5.7. Values of the indeftype grammateme


relative pronoun / adverb / numeral (kdo, jaký; kdy, jak; kolik (=who, what, when, how; how_many)


indefinite pronoun / adverb / numeral of the type někdo, nějaký / někde, nějak / několik (=someone, some / somewhere, somehow / several)


indefinite pronoun / pronominal adverb of the type kdosi, jakýsi / kdesi, jaksi (=someone, some / somewhere, somehow)


indefinite pronoun / pronominal adverb of the type kdokoli, jakýkoli / kdekoli, jakkoli (=anyone, any / anywhere, however/no_matter_how)


indefinite pronoun / pronominal adverb of the type ledakdo, ledajaký / ledakde, ledajak (=apprx. various_people, all_sorts_of / in_various_places, in_various_ways)


indefinite pronoun / pronominal adverb of the type málokdo / málokde, kdovíkdo / kdovíkde (=not_many_people / not_in_many_places, who_knows_who / who_knows_where)


indefinite pronoun of the type kdekdo, kdejaký (=apprx. almost_everybody/many_people, almost_every);


interrogative pronoun / pronominal adverb/ numeral


negative pronoun / pronominal adverb (nikdo, nijaký; nikde, nijak (=no_one, no; nowhere, in_no_way))


totalizing pronoun / pronominal adverb (referring to the whole of something) (všichni; všude (=everybody, everywhere))


totalizing pronoun (referring to individuals) (každý (=each/every))

The grammateme is relevant for:

  1. indefinite pronominal semantic nouns (sempos = n.pron.indef; see Section 6.1.4, "Indefinite pronominal semantic nouns"),

  2. indefinite pronominal semantic adjectives (sempos = adj.pron.indef; see Section 6.2.3, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adjectives"),

  3. indefinite quantificational semantic adjectives (sempos = adj.quant.indef; see Section 6.2.5, "Indefinite quantificational semantic adjectives"),

  4. indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs (sempos = adj.pron.indef; see Section 6.3.6, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs").

Relative, indefinite, interrogative, negative and totalizing nominal and adjectival pronouns are considered to be derived from the corresponding relative/interrogative pronouns; the same holds for pronominal adverbs and numerals (see Section 1.2, "Types of lexical derivation").

The indeftype grammateme expresses the semantic feature in which the pronoun / adverb / numeral in question differs from the t-lemma it is represented by.

Relatives and interrogatives. Relatives and interrogatives are represented by a single t-lemma; also their m-lemmas are usually identical. Relatives are those pronouns that are in a grammatical coreference relation with another item in the sentence structure (see Section 2.2, "Coreference with relative elements"); they usually occur in dependent relative clauses. Interrogatives are those pronouns that do not corefer with anything; they are used in questions and content clauses. Relatives have the indeftype grammateme specified as relat, interrogatives have the indeftype grammateme filled with the value inter.


Ten, kdo přišel. [indeftype=relat] (=The one who came) ( kdo corefers with ten)

Muž, kterého jsme dnes potkali... [indeftype=relat] (=The man that we met today) ( který corefers with the noun muž)

Kdo přišel? [indeftype=inter] (=Who came?)

Řekněte, který dům jste si koupili? [indeftype=inter] (=Tell me, which house did you buy?)

Indefinites. There are several types of indefinites in Czech. Individual types differ from each other by the derivational means they make use of (ně- / -si / -koli etc.), which also cause subtle meaning differences. Individual derivational types of indefinites are assigned one of the values: indef1 through indef6.

!!! The value indef6 covers more types at the moment (málo-, kdoví, bůhví etc.). In the future, each of these types should be assigned a separate value of the indeftype grammateme.

Totalizers. Totalizers are assigned one of the two values: total1 or total2. The value total1 is assigned to a node for a totalizer referring to the whole of something; the value total2 is assigned to a totalizer referring individually to every single item (in the domain).

Negatives. Negatives are represented by the value negat.

For more details see Section 6.1.4, "Indefinite pronominal semantic nouns", Section 6.2.3, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adjectives", Section 6.2.5, "Indefinite quantificational semantic adjectives" a Section 6.3.6, "Indefinite pronominal semantic adverbs".