8. Idioms (phrasemes)

Idioms/phrasemes (idiomatic/phraseologic constructions) are combinations of two or more words with a fixed lexical content, which together constitute one lexical unit with a metaphorical meaning (which cannot be decomposed into the meanings of its parts).

Each idiomatic expression has two parts:

Representing idioms in the tectogrammatical trees. Idioms are always represented by two nodes - the mother node and its direct daughter. The mother node represents the governing part of the idiom and its functor is assigned according to the position of the whole idiom in the sentence structure. The dependent part of the idiom is represented by its daughter with the functor DPHR (nodetype=dphr; see Section 6, "Nodes representing the dependent parts of idiomatic expressions") indicating the fact that this node together with its mother node constitute an idiom. The t-lemma of the node with functor DPHR consists of all the dependent parts of the idiom (including the prepositions) conjoined by underscore characters in the order in which they occurred in the surface form of the sentence (see Section 3, "T-lemmas of multi-word (complex) lexical units").

!!! We can only capture as idioms those expressions which are represented by at least two nodes in the tectogrammatical tree. One-word (one-node) idioms are not represented as idioms in the tree. For example in the combination chlapec k pohledání (=a boy to look for) the prepositional phrase gets the functor RSTR, and it is not indicated that this is an idiom.

!!! We take an idiom to be one lexical unit even though we represent it as two nodes in the tectogrammatical tree. Ideally, the idiom would be represented by a single node in the tree. However, this solution is only used for the dependent part of the idiom so far.