Positional Tags: Quick Reference (Czech "HM" Morphology)

Author: Jan Hajic, 2000


No. Name Description
 1  POS Part of Speech
 2  SUBPOS Detailed Part of Speech
 3  GENDER Gender
 4  NUMBER Number
 5  CASE Case
 6  POSSGENDER Possessor's Gender
 7  POSSNUMBER Possessor's Number
 8  PERSON Person
 9  TENSE Tense
 10  GRADE Degree of comparison
 11  NEGATION Negation
 12  VOICE Voice
 13  RESERVE1 Unused
 14  RESERVE2 Unused
 15  VAR Variant, Style, Register, Special Usage 


Values and Description by Category


A Adjective
C Numeral
D Adverb
I Interjection
J Conjunction
N Noun
P Pronoun
V Verb
R Preposition
T Particle
X Unknown, Not Determined, Unclassifiable
Z Punctuation (also used for the Sentence Boundary token)


! Abbreviation used as an adverb (now obsolete)
# Sentence boundary (for the virtual word ###)
* Word krát (lit.: times) (POS: C, numeral)
, Conjunction subordinate (incl. aby, kdyby in all forms)
. Abbreviation used as an adjective (now obsolete)
0 Preposition with attached (pronoun něj, lit. him); proň, naň, .... (POS: P, pronoun)
1 Relative possessive pronoun jehož, jejíž, ... (lit. whose in subordinate relative clause)
2 Hyphen (always as a separate token)
3 Abbreviation used as a numeral (now obsolete)
4 Relative/interrogative pronoun with adjectival declension of both types (soft and hard) (jaký, který, čí, ..., lit. what, which, whose, ...)
5 The pronoun he in forms requested after any preposition (with prefix n-: něj, něho, ..., lit. him in various cases)
6 Reflexive pronoun se in long forms (sebe, sobě, sebou, lit. myself / yourself / herself / himself in various cases; se is personless)
7 Reflexive pronouns se (CASE = 4), si (CASE = 3), plus the same two forms with contracted -s: ses, sis (distinguished by PERSON = 2; also number is singular only)
8 Possessive reflexive pronoun svůj (lit. my/your/her/his when the possessor is the subject of the sentence)
9 Relative pronoun jenž, již, ... after a preposition (n-: něhož, niž, ..., lit. who)
: Punctuation (except for the virtual sentence boundary word ###, which uses the SUBPOS #)
; Abbreviation used as a noun (now obsolete)
= Number written using digits (POS: C, numeral)
? Numeral kolik (lit. how many/how much)
@ Unrecognized word form (POS: X, unknown)
A Adjective, general
B Verb, present or future form
C Adjective, nominal (short, participial) form rád, schopen, ...
D Pronoun, demonstrative (ten, onen, ..., lit. this, that, that ... over there, ...)
E Relative pronoun což (corresponding to English which in subordinate clauses referring to a part of the preceding text)
F Preposition, part of; never appears isolated, always in a phrase (nehledě (na), vzhledem (k), ..., lit. regardless, because of)
G Adjective derived from present transgressive form of a verb
H Personal pronoun, clitical (short) form (mě, mi, ti, mu, ...); these forms are used in the second position in a clause (lit. me, you, her, him), even though some of them () might be regularly used anywhere as well
I Interjections (POS: I)
J Relative pronoun jenž, již, ... not after a preposition (lit. who, whom)
K Relative/interrogative pronoun kdo (lit. who), incl. forms with affixes and -s (affixes are distinguished by the category VAR (for ) and PERSON (for -s))
L Pronoun, indefinite všechnen, sám (lit. all, alone)
M Adjective derived from verbal past transgressive form
N Noun (general)
O Pronoun svůj, nesvůj, tentam alone (lit. own self, not-in-mood, gone)
P Personal pronoun já, ty, on (lit. I, you, he) (incl. forms with the enclitic -s, e.g. tys, lit. you're); gender position is used for third person to distinguish on/ona/ono (lit. he/she/it), and number for all three persons
Q Pronoun relative/interrogative co, copak, cožpak (lit. what, isn't-it-true-that)
R Preposition (general, without vocalization)
S Pronoun possessive můj, tvůj, jeho (lit. my, your, his); gender position used for third person to distinguish jeho, její, jeho (lit. his, her, its), and number for all three pronouns
T Particle (POS: T, particle)
U Adjective possessive (with the masculine ending -ův as well as feminine -in)
V Preposition (with vocalization -e or -u): (ve, pode, ku, ..., lit. in, under, to)
W Pronoun negative (nic, nikdo, nijaký, žádný, ..., lit. nothing, nobody, not-worth-mentioning, no/none)
X (temporary) Word form recognized, but tag is missing in dictionary due to delays in (asynchronous) dictionary creation
Y Pronoun relative/interrogative co as an enclitic (after a preposition) (oč, nač, zač, lit. about what, on/onto what, after/for what)
Z Pronoun indefinite (nějaký, některý, číkoli, cosi, ..., lit. some, some, anybody's, something)
^ Conjunction (connecting main clauses, not subordinate)
a Numeral, indefinite (mnoho, málo, tolik, několik, kdovíkolik, ..., lit. much/many, little/few, that much/many, some (number of), who-knows-how-much/many)
b Adverb (without a possibility to form negation and degrees of comparison, e.g. pozadu, naplocho, ..., lit. behind, flatly); i.e. both the NEGATION as well as the GRADE attributes in the same tag are marked by - (Not applicable)
c Conditional (of the verb být (lit. to be) only) (by, bych, bys, bychom, byste, lit. would)
d Numeral, generic with adjectival declension ( dvojí, desaterý, ..., lit. two-kinds/..., ten-...)
e Verb, transgressive present (endings -e/-ě, -íc, -íce)
f Verb, infinitive
g Adverb (forming negation (NEGATION set to A/N) and degrees of comparison GRADE set to 1/2/3 (comparative/superlative), e.g. velký, za\-jí\-ma\-vý, ..., lit. big, interesting
h Numeral, generic; only jedny and nejedny (lit. one-kind/sort-of, not-only-one-kind/sort-of)
i Verb, imperative form
j Numeral, generic greater than or equal to 4 used as a syntactic noun (čtvero, desatero, ..., lit. four-kinds/sorts-of, ten-...)
k Numeral, generic greater than or equal to 4 used as a syntactic adjective, short form (čtvery, ..., lit. four-kinds/sorts-of)
l Numeral, cardinal jeden, dva, tři, čtyři, půl, ... (lit. one, two, three, four); also sto and tisíc (lit. hundred, thousand) if noun declension is not used
m Verb, past transgressive; also archaic present transgressive of perfective verbs (ex.: udělav, lit. (he-)having-done; arch. also udělaje (VAR = 4), lit. (he-)having-done)
n Numeral, cardinal greater than or equal to 5
o Numeral, multiplicative indefinite (-krát, lit. (times): mnohokrát, tolikrát, ..., lit. many times, that many times)
p Verb, past participle, active (including forms with the enclitic -s, lit. 're (are))
q Verb, past participle, active, with the enclitic , lit. (perhaps) -could-you-imagine-that? or but-because- (both archaic)
r Numeral, ordinal (adjective declension without degrees of comparison)
s Verb, past participle, passive (including forms with the enclitic -s, lit. 're (are))
t Verb, present or future tense, with the enclitic , lit. (perhaps) -could-you-imagine-that? or but-because- (both archaic)
u Numeral, interrogative kolikrát, lit. how many times?
v Numeral, multiplicative, definite (-krát, lit. times: pětkrát, ..., lit. five times)
w Numeral, indefinite, adjectival declension (nejeden, tolikátý, ..., lit. not-only-one, so-many-times-repeated)
x Abbreviation, part of speech unknown/indeterminable (now obsolete)
y Numeral, fraction ending at -ina (POS: C, numeral); used as a noun (pětina, lit. one-fifth)
z Numeral, interrogative kolikátý, lit. what (at-what-position-place-in-a-sequence)
} Numeral, written using Roman numerals (XIV)
~ Abbreviation used as a verb (now obsolete)


- Not applicable
F Feminine
H Feminine or Neuter
I Masculine inanimate
M Masculine animate
N Neuter
Q Feminine (with singular only) or Neuter (with plural only); used only with participles and nominal forms of adjectives
T Masculine inanimate or Feminine (plural only); used only with participles and nominal forms of adjectives
X Any of the basic four genders
Y Masculine (either animate or inanimate)
Z Not fenimine (i.e., Masculine animate/inanimate or Neuter); only for (some) pronoun forms and certain numerals


- Not applicable
D Dual
P Plural
S Singular
W Singular for feminine gender, plural with neuter; can only appear in participle or nominal adjective form with gender value Q
X Any


- Not applicable
1 Nominative
2 Genitive
3 Dative
4 Accusative
5 Vocative
6 Locative
7 Instrumental
X Any


- Not applicable
F Feminine possessor
M Masculine animate possessor (adjectives only)
X Any gender
Z Not feminine (both masculine or neuter)


- Not applicable
P Plural (possessor)
S Singular (possessor)


- Not applicable
1 1st person
2 2nd person
3 3rd person
X Any person


- Not applicable
F Future
H Past or Present
P Present
R Past
X Any (Past, Present, or Future)


- Not applicable
1 Positive
2 Comparative
3 Superlative


- Not applicable
A Affirmative (not negated)
N Negated


- Not applicable
A Active
P Passive


- Not applicable


- Not applicable


- Not applicable (basic variant, standard contemporary style; also used for standard forms allowed for use in writing by the Czech Standard Orthography Rules despite being marked there as colloquial)
1 Variant, second most used (less frequent), still standard
2 Variant, rarely used, bookish, or archaic
3 Very archaic, also archaic + colloquial
4 Very archaic or bookish, but standard at the time
5 Colloquial, but (almost) tolerated even in public
6 Colloquial (standard in spoken Czech)
7 Colloquial (standard in spoken Czech), less frequent variant
8 Abbreviations
9 Special uses, e.g. personal pronouns after prepositions etc.