17.4. The conjunctions "než" and "jako"

The conjunctions než (=than) and jako (=as) link both clauses and modifications. Their status in respect of subordination and co-ordination is not unequivocal. The conjunction jako (=as) can link two modifications both in a paratactic relation and in a relationship of dependency.

The conjunctions než (=than) and jako (=as) do not demand a specific form of the element that follows them; therefore the majority of cases in which the conjunction než (=than) or jako (=as) is followed at surface level by a noun in a certain case or by a prepositional phrase are represented as ellipsis of the verb. Cf.:

The clause acquires a new node for the verb; it will usually be a copy of the node representing the verb in the governing clause. The effective root node of the prepositional phrase following the conjunction jako (=as) or než (=than) will be a dependent node of the inserted node.

Exceptions. Exceptions are the following cases in which no new node for the verb is added in the structure:

Boundaries between constructions created by multifunctionality of the conjunction "jako". The multifunctionality of the conjunction jako (=as), which in terms of its form is treated as both paratactic and hypotactic, can also frequently give rise to a very vague boundary between the constructions:

The correct determination of the construction depends on the assessment of the semantic dependency relationships: in the case of a modification with comparative meaning semantic dependency is essential; in the case of a predicative complement (or argument) the modification must exhibit dual dependency and in the case of a paratactic structure a relationship of co-ordination or apposition should exist between the modifications. Surface syntax may also play a significant role in the determination of relationships.